Expert Answer:People of Russian Heritage, People of Polish Herit

  

Solved by verified expert:People of Russian Heritage.People of Polish Heritage.People of Thai Heritage. Read chapter 24, 22 & 36 of the class textbook(Transcultural Health Care. A Culturally Competent Approach (4th ed.)Purnell, L.D.Publisher: F.A. Davis Company; 4th edition) and review the attached PowerPoint presentations. Once done write an 800 words essay contracting the three study heritage. Mention in the essay if there is any similarity in their healthcare belief. Mention how do they see health and disease and their customs to deal with them, also, discuss how they view dead. How their health care belief affect or influence the delivery of evidence-based healthcare. Read content chapter 36 in Davis Plus Online Website.You must use at least 4 evidence-based references (excluding the class textbook). A minimum of 800 words (not counting the first and reference page are required). This time beside the content and references I will count the assignment base of the number of words.
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Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish American Culture
Larry Purnell, PhD, RN, FAAN
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Overview/Heritage
▪ Over 9 million people in the United States and
800,000 people in Canada identify their ancestry
as Polish.
▪ Displaying fierce patriotism, courage, and
determination to resist another occupation,
Poland was the only country to combat Germany
from the first day of the Nazi invasion until the
end of the war in Europe.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Overview/Heritage
▪ Between the 1939 Nazi invasion and the end of
World War II in 1945, nearly six million Poles,
comprising over 15 percent of Poland’s total
population, perished.
▪ Many Polish Jews were exterminated by the
Nazis in the Holocaust, prisoners killed in
concentration or forced labor camps, soldiers,
and civilians.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Overview/Heritage
▪ After Stalin’s death, Polish communism vacillated
between repression and liberalization until about
1970.
▪ Poland’s resistance to Communist rule began in
1970 with the emergence of Lech Walesa, the
leader of a strike in the Gdansk shipyards.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Overview/Heritage
▪ The 1980 emergence of Solidarity and the
election of a Polish Pope rekindled a religious
rebirth in the Poles, an increased sense of self,
social identity, and the realization of their
collective strength.
▪ Solidarity became a major social movement and
phenomenon unheard of within the Soviet bloc’s
political system.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Overview/Heritage
▪ In July, 1989, the newly elected Parliament
changed the country’s name and constitution,
establishing the Third Republic of Poland and a
democratic system of government.
▪ Polish immigrants have maintained their ethnic
heritage by promoting their culture, attending
Catholic churches, attending parades/festivals,
maintaining ethnic food traditions, speaking the
Polish language.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Overview/Heritage
▪ Newer immigrants are less concerned with
raising consciousness over Polish
American issues as they are with
financially helping families who remain in
Poland and raising concerns over the
political/economic climate in their
homeland.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Overview/Heritage
▪ Like any other group that perceives themselves
as unaccepted, displaced, and different, Polish
immigrants established a geographically and
socially segregated area which was called a
“Polonia”.
▪ Polish immigration to America continues today;
many come to earn money then return to Poland.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Overview/Heritage
▪ At the peak of Polish migration, Chicago
was considered the most well-developed
Polish community in the United States.
▪ Poles are a heterogeneous group. As such,
they were slow to assimilate into
multicultural America.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Overview/Heritage
▪ Even after displaying a sense of duty, honor,
and patriotism during wartime, Polish Americans
often experienced discrimination during and
after the war.
▪ Poles were passed over for jobs because they
had difficulties speaking English and their
names were difficult to pronounce or spell.
▪ Name changes became common for Polish
Americans seeking upward mobility.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Overview/Heritage
▪ Many Polish Americans still experience
discrimination and ridicule through
ethnic Polish jokes, which are similar in
scope to those about Irish, Italian, and
Mexican Americans.
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Communication
▪ The dominant language of people living in
Poland is Polish, although there are some
regional dialects and differences.
▪ Generally, most Polish speaking people can
communicate with each other.
▪ Recently, a resurgence of interest in learning
to speak the Polish language has occurred
among Polish Americans.
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Communication
▪ Touch is common among family members
and friends, but Poles may be quite formal
with strangers and health-care providers.
▪ Handshaking is considered polite. In fact,
failing to shake hands with everyone present
may be considered rude.
▪ Most Poles feel comfortable with close
personal space: distances increase with
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Communication
▪ First-generation Poles and other people from
Eastern European countries commonly kiss “Polish
style.” That is, once on each cheek and then once
again. For Poles, kissing the hand is considered
appropriate if the woman extends it.
▪ Two women may walk together arm in arm, or two
men may greet each other with an embrace, a hug,
and a kiss on both cheeks.
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Communication
▪ Many consider the use of spoken second
person familiarity rude. Polish people speak
in the third person. For example, they might
ask, “Would Martin like some coffee?” rather
than “Would you like some coffee?”
▪ Many Polish names are difficult to
pronounce. Even though a name may be
mispronounced, a high value is placed on the
attempt to pronounce it correctly.
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Communication
▪ Polish Americans use direct eye contact
when interacting with others.
▪ Many Americans may feel uncomfortable
with this sustained eye contact and feel it is
quite close to staring, but to Poles, it is
considered ordinary.
▪ Poles tend to share thoughts and ideas
freely, particularly as part of their hospitality.
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Communication
▪ Americans talk of sports while Poles speak of
their personal life, their jobs, families,
spouse, aspirations, and misfortunes.
▪ Punctuality is important to Polish Americans.
To be late is a sign of bad manners.
▪ Even in social situations, people are
expected to arrive on time and stay late.
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Communication
▪ Polish Americans are both past and future
oriented.
▪ The past is very much a part of Polish culture,
with the families passing on their memories
of WW II, which still haunt them in some way.
▪ A strong work ethic encourages Poles to plan
for the future.
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Communication
▪ Traditional Polish names are often a
description of a person (e.g., John Wysocki
means John the tailor), or a profession (e.g.
the surname Recznik means butcher), or a
place (e.g., Sokolowski means one from a
town named Sokoly, Sokolka, etc.)
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Communication
▪ Changes in surnames may have been made
during the country’s record keeping process
or during the immigration processing on Ellis
Island.
▪ The transfer of information from emigrant to
official records was highly dependent on the
pronunciation, spelling, and writing skills of
both the recorder and the applicant.
Copyright © 2013 F.A. Davis Company
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Family Roles and Organization
▪ Life in the Polish culture centers on family.
▪ Each family member has a certain position, role,
and related responsibilities.
▪ All members are expected to work, make
contributions, and strive to enhance the entire
family’s reputation, social, and economic
position.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Family Roles and Organization
▪ Individual concerns and personal fulfillment are
afforded little consideration and sacrifices for the
betterment of the family are expected.
▪ In most Polish families, the father is perceived
as the head of the household.
▪ Depending on the degree of assimilation, the
father may rule with absolute authority
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Family Roles & Organization
▪ Among some third- and fourth–generation
Polish Americans and second- and third–wave
immigrants, more egalitarian gender roles are
becoming the norm.
▪ Historically, large families were commonplace.
▪ Polish women, following the Roman Catholic
Church’s teachings, often experienced
between 5 and 10 pregnancies.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Family Roles & Organization
▪ The most valued behavior for Polish American
children is obedience.
▪ Taboo childhood behaviors include any act that
undermines parental authority.
▪ Parents are quite demonstrative with children.
▪ Many parents praise children for self-control and
completing chores.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Family Roles & Organization
▪ Little sympathy is wasted on failure but doing
well is openly praised.
▪ Children are taught to resist feelings of
helplessness, fragility, or dependence.
▪ For many, important family priorities are to
maintain the honor of the family in the larger
society, to have a good jobs, and to be good
Catholics.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Family Roles & Organization
▪ Older people are highly respected.
▪ They play an active role in helping grandchildren
learn Polish customs and in assisting adult
children in their daily routine with families.
▪ For some families, one of the worst disgraces,
as seen through the eyes of the Polish
community, is to put an aged family member in
a nursing home.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Family Roles & Organization
▪ Third- and fourth–generation Polish Americans
may consider an extended-care or assisted
living facility.
▪ Extended family, consisting of aunts, uncles,
and godparents, is very important to Poles.
▪ Longtime friends become aunts or uncles to
Polish children.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Family Roles & Organization
▪ Alternative lifestyles are seen as part of
assimilation into the blended American culture.
▪ Same-sex couples are frowned upon and may
even be ostracized, depending on the level of
assimilation.
▪ The Polish value for family solidarity is strong and
divorce is truly seen as a last resort.
▪ When divorce does result, single heads of
households are accepted.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Workforce Issues
▪ Polish Americans have extensive social networks
and their strong work ethic enables them to gain
employment and assimilate easily into the
workforce.
▪ Some Poles entering America are
underemployed and may have difficulty working
with authority figures who are less educated than
themselves.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Workforce Issues
▪ Poles are usually quick learners and work hard
to do a job well.
▪ The Polish characteristic of praising people for
their work makes Poles strong managers, but
some lack sensitivity in their quest to complete
tasks.
▪ Foreign-born Poles may have some difficulty
understanding the subtle nuances of humor.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Workforce Issues
▪ Because Poles learn deference to authority at
home, in the church, and in parochial schools,
some may be less well suited for the rigors of a
highly individualistic, competitive market.
▪ Polish immigrants who worked under a
communist bureaucratic hierarchy may have
some difficulty with the structure, subtleties, and
culture of the American workplace.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Biocultural Ecology
▪ Most Poles are of medium height with a mediumto-large bone structure.
▪ As a result of foreign invasions over the
centuries, Polish people may be dark and Mongol
looking or fair with delicate features with blue
eyes and blonde hair.
▪ Poles consider themselves tough and be able to
tolerate pain from injuries, illness, and disease.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Biocultural Ecology
▪ In 1986, the Chernobyl radiation incident in
Russia contaminated the land and water
systems of eastern Poland.
▪ The full impact of this disaster on the incidence
of cancer in Poland, as well as for Poles
emigrating to other parts of the world, remains
unknown.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Biocultural Ecology
▪ Health conditions common among
Poles include cardiovascular
disease, stroke, obesity, and cervical
cancer.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish High-Risk Behaviors
▪ Alcohol misuse, with its subsequent
physiological, psychological, and sociological
effects and its related financial impact,
continues to be an ongoing concern among
Polish Americans.
▪ Illicit drug use is becoming more commonly
used by Polish urban residents.
▪ Cannabis is the most popular illicit drug.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Nutrition
▪ Most Poles extend the sharing of food and drink
to guests entering their homes.
▪ Eating and/or drinking with the host is perceived
as social acceptance.
▪ Polish foods and cooking are similar to German,
Russian, and Jewish practices.
▪ Staples of the diet are millet, barley, potatoes,
onions, radishes, turnips, beets, beans, cabbage,
carrots, cucumbers, tomatoes, and apples.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Nutrition
▪ Common meats eaten are chicken, beef, and
pork.
▪ Traditional high-fat entrees include pigs’ knuckles
and organ meats such as liver, tripe, and tongue.
▪ Kapusta (sauerkraut), golabki (stuffed cabbage),
babka (coffee cake), pierogi”(dumplings), and
chrusciki”(deep-fried bowtie pastries) are
common ethnic foods.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Nutrition
▪ The Polish American diet is frequently
high in carbohydrates, sodium, and
saturated fat.
▪ Except for individuals living near the
Baltic Sea in northern Poland who
consume fish regularly, Poles are in
danger of developing nutritional problems
related to the lack of iodine in their diet.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Pregnancy & Childbearing
Practices
▪ Because family is very important, most Poles
want children.
▪ In Poland, the Catholic Church strongly opposes
abortion, which is the prevailing attitude of many
Poles in America.
▪ Fertility practices are balanced between the
needs of the family and the laws of the Church.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Pregnancy & Childbearing
Practices
▪ Pregnant Polish Americans are expected to seek
preventive health care, eat well, and rest
adequately to ensure a healthy pregnancy and
baby. The emphasis is on “eating for two”.
▪ Many consider it bad luck to have a “baby
shower.” Polish grandmothers may be reluctant
to give gifts until after the baby is born. Birthing
is typically done in the hospital.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Pregnancy & Childbearing
Practices
▪ Pregnant women usually follow the physician’s
orders carefully.
▪ The birthing process is considered the domain
of women.
▪ Newer Polish immigrants may feel
uncomfortable with men in the birthing area or
with family-centered care.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Pregnancy and Childbearing
Practices
▪ Women are expected to rest for the first few
weeks after delivery.
▪ For many, breastfeeding is important.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Death Rituals
▪ Most Poles have a stoic acceptance of death as
part of the life process and a strong sense of
loyalty and respect for their loved ones.
▪ Family and friends stay with the dying person to
negate any feelings of abandonment.
▪ The Polish ethic of demonstrating caring by doing
something means bringing food to share, caring
for children, and assisting with household chores.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Death Rituals
▪ Most Polish women are quick to help with the
physical needs of the dying.
▪ Home hospice care is acceptable to most Poles.
▪ Polish American family members follow a funeral
custom of having a wake for 1 to 3 days, followed
by a Mass and religious burial.
▪ Most Poles honor their dead by attending Mass
and making special offerings to the Catholic
Church on All Souls Day, November 1.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Spirituality
▪ The Catholic Church requires attendance at
Mass on all Sundays and holy days of obligation
and is an integral part of the lives of most.
▪ There are “holy days” in almost every month of
the year in addition to the rituals of baptism, first
holy communion, confirmation, marriage,
sacrament of the sick, and burial.
▪ Birthdays are important religious events.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Spirituality
▪ One very popular song is “Sto Lat,” which
conveys wishes that the celebrant live 100
years.
▪ Primary spiritual sources are God and Jesus
Christ, the Virgin Mary, saints, and angels to
ward off evil and danger.
▪ Honor and special attention is paid to the Black
Madonna or Our Lady of Czestachowa
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Spirituality
▪ Many older Polish people believe in the special
properties of prayer books, rosary beads,
medals, and consecrated objects.
▪ Polish Americans commonly exhibit devotions to
God in their homes, such as crucifixes and
pictures of the Virgin Mary, the Black Madonna,
and Pope John Paul II.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Health-care Practices
▪ Most Poles put a high value on stoicism and
doing what needs to be done.
▪ Many only go to health-care providers when
symptoms interfere with function; then they may
consider the advice provided carefully before
complying.
▪ Many Poles are reluctant to discuss their
treatment options and concerns with physicians
and routinely accept the proposed care plan.
Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, 4th Edition
Polish Health-care Practices
▪ If Poles believe they are unable to pay the
medical bill, they may refuse treatment unless
the condition is life-threatening.
▪ Many have a strong fear of becoming dependent
and resist …
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