Expert Answer:Physics Unit 1 To 9 Chapters Reading MCQ Questions


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Q UE S T I O N 1
If the pre-sampling flow rate is 200 mL/min, what is the range for the post-sampling flow rate (post-sampling
flow rate should be within ±5%)?
a. 190 to 210 cm3/min.
b. 190 to 210 mL/min.
c. All answers correct.
d. 0.190 to 0.210 L/min.
Q UE S T I O N 2
1. A 0.036 m 3 volume of air was sampled for acetone vapor (MW = 58 g/mol) using a lowflow air sampling pump connected to a standard charcoal tube as an adsorbent medium.
Laboratory analysis of the front and backup sections of the charcoal tube using GC
indicated that a total of 0.6 mg acetone was reported from the lab analysis. What was the
concentration (ppm) of acetone vapor in the air during the sampling period, assuming
normal temperature (25°C) and pressure (760 mmHg)? Hint: Follow example 9.3 from the
Show your work for maximum points possible.
Q UE S T I O N 3
Rotameters, used as secondary calibrators are …
a. … flow rate meters.
b. … volume meters.
c. … velocity meters.
d. All answers correct.
Q UE S T I O N 4
In air sampling for halogenated hydrocarbons using sorbent tubes …
a. … PVC-filter is used since halogenated hydrocarbons are non-polar compounds.
b. All answers correct.
c. … activated charcoal or silica gel can be used as a sorbent material, polarity of the molecules is not an
important factor.
d. … silica gel is used since halogenated hydrocarbons are polar compounds.
Q UE S T I O N 5
In air sampling for benzene and toluene using sorbent tubes …
a. … activated charcoal is used since benzene and xylene are non-polar molecules.
b. … silica gel is used since benzene and xylene are polar molecules.
c. … activated charcoal or silica gel can be used as a sorbent material, polarity of the molecules is not an
important factor.
d. All answers correct.
Q UE S T I O N 6
The collection efficiency of air sampling with sorbent tubes may be affected by …
a. … sample flow rate.
b. … concentration of the gas or vapor.
c. … temperature, and humidity.
d. All answers correct.
Q UE S T I O N 7
Air sampling with sorbent tubes is based on …
a. All answers correct.
b. … adsorption.
c. … chemical reaction with reagent
d. … absorption.
Q UE S T I O N 8
Frictionless bubble-tube (manual, electronic) and dry calibrators are …
a. All answers correct.
b. … volume meters.
c. … flow rate meters.
d. … velocity meters.
Q UE S T I O N 9
If you collect air sample with flow rate 1500 cm3/min for 360 seconds what will be the sampling volume?
a. 9 liters.
b. 540 liters.
c. 9000 liters.
d. 9 cubic meters.
Q UE S T I O N 1 0
Air sample for total dust was collected using 37-mm, 5-μm PVC filter (NIOSH Method 0500). The sample was
collected for 8 hours at constant flow rate of 2 L/min. The weight of the total dust on the filter after sampling
was 0.018 g. What was the concentration of total dust in mg/m3?
a. 1.875 mg/m3
b. 18.75 mg/m3
c. None of the answers correct.
d. 1.125 mg/m3
Q UE S T I O N 1 1
If you collect air sample with flow rate 150 mL per minute for 1 hour what will be the sampling volume?
a. 9 cubic meters.
b. 150 liters.
c. 0.15 liters.
d. 0.009 cubic meters.
Q UE S T I O N 1 2
In air sampling for total dust the sample medium is a 37-mm diameter polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filter with a
5.0-µm pore size …
a. … only particles with with diameters greater than the pore size will be collected on the surface of the filter.
b. … all particles will be collected on the surface of the filter. Particle size is not an important factor.
c. All answers correct.
d. … particles with with diameters smaller than the pore diameter can also be collected on the surface of the
Q UE S T I O N 1 3
The amount of xylene found on the front section of sorbent tube after analysis is 3.0 mg. The validity of the
sample is questionable if the amount of analyte detected and measured on the back section is greater than …
a. … ± 0.3 mg.
b. … ± 0.015 mg.
c. … ± 0.006 mg.
d. All answers correct.
Q UE S T I O N 1 4
Filters for dust sampling can be overloaded with particulate …
a. … if airborne concentrations and sample volumes are too low.
b. All answers correct.
c. … if airborne concentrations and sample volumes are too high.
d. … irrespective of airborne concentrations and sample volumes.
Q UE S T I O N 1 5
One liter is equal to …
a. … 1000 cubic meters.
b. … 1000 milliliters.
c. All answers correct.
d. … 1000 microliters.
Q UE S T I O N 1 6
One milliliter is equal to …
a. … one cubic centimeter.
b. … 0.001 liters.
c. All answers correct.
d. … 1000 microliters.
Q UE S T I O N 1 7
In bulk air sampling …
a. All answers correct.
b. … both whole air and separated contaminants can be collected.
c. … the whole air is collected in a specific container.
d. … only the components of interest are retained on specific media.
Q UE S T I O N 1 8
All of the following are physical hazards except …
a. … oxidizing agents.
b. … nonionizing radiation.
c. … ionizing radiation.
d. … noise.
Q UE S T I O N 1 9
A multiflow air sampling pump was calibrated using a manual frictionless bubble-tube. What was the average
flow rate (Q) in liters per minute (l/min) if 3 trials (n = 3) were run resulting in 60.1 sec (T 1), 59.9 sec (T2),
and 60.0 sec (T3) for the bubble to traverse a volume of 1000 cm3? Hint: See example 3.1 from the textbook.
Show your work for maximum points possible.
Q UE S T I O N 2 0
What information specific for an airborne chemical do we need, when we have sample results and need to
calculate the concentration in ppm? Hint: See conversion from mg/m3to ppm in Unit 9.
a. Polarity of molecule.
b. Molecular weight.
c. Presence of double bonds in the molecule.
d. All answers correct.
Q UE S T I O N 2 1
Air sampling for xylene (NIOSH Method 1501) is an example of (check all that apply) …
a. … active flow sampling.
b. … passive flow sampling.
c. … bulk sampling.
d. … personal sampling.
Q UE S T I O N 2 2
Rotameters are calibrated by comparison with a …
a. All answers correct.
b. … secondary calibrating device.
c. … primary calibrating device.
d. … air sampling pump.
Q UE S T I O N 2 3
In air sampling for total dust the coarse particulate is collected primarily …
a. All answers correct.
b. … via interception and impaction within the medium.
c. … absorption in the medium.
d. … via diffusion into the filter material.
Q UE S T I O N 2 4
Which of the following occupational exposure limits (OELs) are legally binding?
a. Permissible exposure limits (PELs).
b. Recommended exposure levels (RELs)
c. All answers correct.
d. Threshold limit values (TLVs).
Q UE S T I O N 2 5
What factors ca cause an analyte to pass from the front to the back section of media (breakthrough) in
sorbent tubes?
a. Chanelling.
b. Saturation.
c. All answers correct.
d. Desorption.
Q UE S T I O N 2 6
Air sampling for particulates not otherwise regulated (NIOSH Method 0500) is an example of (check all that
apply) …
a. … bulk sampling.
b. … active flow sampling.
c. … passive flow sampling.
d. … personal sampling.
Q UE S T I O N 2 7
In air sampling for total dust the fine particulate is collected primarily …
a. … via diffusion into the filter material.
b. … via interception and impaction within the medium.
c. … absorption in the medium.
d. All answers correct.
Evaluation of Hazardous Agents and Factors in
Occupational and Nonoccupational Environments
At the completion of Unit 1,including sufficient reading and studying of this and related
reference material, learners will be able to correctly:

Summarize the roles of occupational health specialists/industrial hygienists.
Name and define the categories of industrial hygiene sampling and analysis for determination of
external exposure to physical, chemical, and biological agents.
Discuss the aspect of evaluating ergonomic factors.
Discuss the aspect of evaluating hazard controls.
Discuss the industrial hygiene and medical monitoring and analysis relative to external, internal,
and effective exposures.
The occupational environment can be simply defined as any place, indoors or outdoors, where
people work in return for financial or other remuneration. The profession of occupational health,
or industrial hygiene, is based on the tetrad of anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of
agents, factors, and stressors related to the occupational environment that may adversely affect the
health of workers and other members of the community. All four aspects of the tetrad are interrelated.
The content of this book, however, will mostly emphasize some major instrumentation, methods,
and practices of industrial hygiene evaluation.
The occupational environment is evaluated by occupational health specialists, historically and
presently, most commonly referred to as industrial hygienists. Industrial hygienists are involved
with evaluation of the occupational environment from several different perspectives. Industrial
hygiene evaluation activities include conducting walk-through surveys of facilities and applicable
monitoring activities to gather both qualitative and quantitative data. Monitoring activities include
sampling and analysis to collect, detect,identify, and measure hazardous physical, chemical, and
biological agents present in specific areas and to which workers and others are potentially or actually
exposed. Industrial hygienists commonly interact directly or indirectly with clinical professionals,
such as physicians, nurses, and audiologists. Industrial hygienists are often familiar with some
general principles of clinical techniques to evaluate workers to determine if they reveal signs of
adverse impact from excessive exposure to agents,such as hearing loss due to prolonged exposure
to elevated sound levels. In addition, industrial hygienists evaluate control measures, including
work practices, personal protective equipment, and ventilation systems, to determine if they effec­
tively reduce the potential for worker exposure. Industrial hygienists also may be involved with
evaluation of ergonomic factors to determine i f there is an appropriate match or fit between workers
and their physical workplace environments.
Industrial hygiene principles and practices often extend beyond the occupational and manufac­
turing settings. For example, professional- and technician-level industrial hygienists are frequently
involved in indoor air quality (IAQ) investigations in nonoccupational settings, such as homes,
schools, and other nonmanufacturing settings. Accordingly, many of the topics presented in this
book are applicable to both occupational and nonoccupational and manufacturing and nonmanu­
facturing environments.
Sampling and analysis refer to the representative collection, detection, identification, and mea­
surement of agents found in environmental matrices such as air, water, and soil. In occupational
and nonoccupational environments, both indoors and outdoors, air is sampled (collected) to detect
and identify physical, chemical, and biological agents and to measure related levels. The most
common matrix that is sampled and analyzed in the occupational environment is the air. Indeed,
inhalation of contaminated air by workers is considered the major mode of foreign agent entry in
most occupational environments. In addition, the air serves as a matrix for elevated sound levels,
extremes of temperature and humidity, and transfer of ionizing and nonionizing radiation energies.
The data collected and analyzed are used to evaluate both actual and potential external exposures
to agents encountered by humans. In turn, the levels are compared to established occupational
exposure limits (OELs) to determine if acceptable values for exposure have been exceeded. In the
U.S., regulatory permissible exposure limits (PELs) are enforced by the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA) for nonmining operations and processes. Regulatory exposure limits
for the mining industry are the threshold limit values (TLVs) enforced by the Mine Safety and Health
Administration (MSHA). Other agencies have established occupational exposure limits as guidelines,
most notably the TLVs by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)
and Recommended Exposure Levels (RELs) by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH). In some cases, a parameter will be monitored without concern necessarily for
excessive exposure. For example, illumination is evaluated and compared to recommend guidelines
to a ssure that there is a n a ppropriate, ne ither i nadequate nor excessive, quantity of lighting. Refer to
Appendix A for a summary of some related strategies for exposure assessment and calculations of
time-weighted averages (TWAs) for comparisons to established regulatory and nonregulatory occu­
pational exposure limits. In relation, Appendix B is an example of an outline format of an industrial
hygiene evaluation report showing information that must be considered, documented, and reported.
Sampling and related analytical activities are divided into several categories to reflect the type
of monitoring that is conducted. Categories are based on factors that include time, location, and
methods of collection (sampling) and detection, identification, and measurement (analysis). Each
serves a purpose in evaluating the occupational environment to determine the degree of workers’
external exposure to various agents.
(i) Instantaneous or Real-Time Sampling
Instantaneous sampling refers to the collection of a sample for a relatively short period ranging
from seconds to typically less than 10 min. A major advantage of instantaneous sampling is that
both sample collection and analysis are provided immediately via direct readout from the sampling
device. The data represent the level of an agent at the specific time of sampling. Accordingly,
instantaneous sampling is also referred to as direct reading and real-time sampling. Real-time
sampling is perhaps a more appropriate designation since there are some devices already developed
and being designed for integrated or continuous monitoring (see Section ii) that provide a directreadout or instantaneous result without need for laboratory analysis and the associated delays. In
addition, the main purpose of real-time sampling is to reveal what a level of an agent is, at an
immediate point of time or during real-time.
The application of real-time sampling varies. The strategy is used when preliminary information
regarding the level of an agent is needed at a specific time and location. For example, real-time
sampling is commonly used for screening to identify agents and measure related levels. This is
important for developing follow-up monitoring strategy and determining if integrated sampling is
warranted. Real-time sampling is also beneficial for determining levels of agents during short-term
operations or specific isolated processes when peak levels are anticipated or suspected.
(ii) Integrated or Continuous Sampling
Integrated sampling refers to the collection of a sample continuously over a prolonged period
ranging from more than 10 or 15 mi n to typically several hours. Integrated sampli ng is also referred
to as continuous monit oring reflective of the extended period of sample col lection. Most work shifts
are 8 h and occupational exposure limits are most commonly based on an 8-h exposure period.
Accordingly, it is very common as well for sampling to cover the duration of the shift. Several
strategies can be followed. For example, a sample run could be started immediately a t the beginning
of the 8-h shift and allowed to run until the shift ends. Analysis of the sample would provide a
single value representative of the level of a particular agent during the shift. The single value
represents an integration of all the levels during the shift. The single value, however, does not
provide information regarding fluctuations of levels that were higher, lower, or not detectable during
shorter periods within the 8-h shift. In addition, there is no indication as to the levels at specific
times and locations during the shift. As a result, an alternative strategy could involve collection of
several samples of shorter duration during the entire shift. In turn, analysis of the individual samples
provides levels associated with specific times, tasks, and locations during the 8-hour shift. Con­
centration (C) and corresponding sample time (T) data from one sample (C,) or several individual
samples (C, to Cn) can be time-weighted (C x T) and averaged, by dividing by a specific time
period (e.g., 8 h), to provide a single overall TWA for the 8-h shift (Appendix A).
A major advantage of integrated sampling is that it provides a single value for the level of an
agent over a prolonged period. The level of an agent can be determined during discrete times and
locations within a workshift to assist in identifying factors that influence elevated values of exposure
or external exposure. A major disadvantage associated with integrated sampling is that in most
cases, samples must be submitted to a laboratory for analysis prior to knowing what has been
detected in the related measurements. This frequently results in a delay between sample collection
and data reporting.
Several fundamental procedures must be followed when conducting integrated personal and
area sampling. It is important to assure that monitoring devices and/or sampling trains are properly
assembled, calibrated, and operated for the specific monitoring activity. It is equally important to
assure that field monitoring data are recorded so that samples can be associated with specific
locations,areas, individuals, dates, times, processes, equipment, temperatures, humidity, atmo­
spheric pressure, and so on. Figure 1.1 summarizes a representative example of a generic integrated
monitoring protocol.

Make sure that all active monitoring devices are pre-calibrated and order checked for accurate
calibration. Check batteries for charge. In addition, confirm that sampling media are not expired.
n Select a worker or area to be monitored. Briefly explain the purpose of monitoring to the worker
and/or workers in the area. Advise individuals not to tamper with the instrument or medium. Record
the worker’s name or the area sampled, worker’s social security number, and job title. Record date,
sampling location and sampling device and/or media identification number.

If a personal sample, attach the monitoring device and/or medium to the worker and make sure that they
do not interfere with the worker’s activities. Attach the sampling medium (e.g., filter cassette) at the
worker’s clavicle near the collar if a breathing zone sample is needed. If a hearing zone sample is
needed, attach the medium (e.g., audiodosimeter microphone) at the trapezius or the ear. If a flexible
hose or a cord is involved, allow enough slack to accommodate worker’s range of motion when
standing, sitting, bending, and twisting and secure any excess so that it does not serve as a potential
interference or hazard.

For an area sample, position the monitoring device and/or medium approximately 4 to 6 feet from
the floor. Make sure that the medium is not in direct corttact with or too close to a contaminant (e.g.
settled or spilled particulate)

Turn “ON” an active monitoring device and record “start time”. Make sure that the device is
operating. If a passive device is used, record “start time” when it is first exposed to the workplace

Document the worker’s performed tasks and/or processes operating in the area during the monitoring
period. Note times when exposur …
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