Expert Answer:PJM5900 Northeastern Elements of Project Closure a

  

Solved by verified expert:There are two components of this assignment:You will be writing a brief essay on the closure and lessons learned process.You will be preparing and submitting a curriculum map that outlines your course progression through the program that will result in a successful completion of either the concentration, certificate, or program.Learning Connection:This assignment is directly linked to the following key learning outcomes from the course syllabus:Describing administrative project closure tasksDescribing how to conduct a Lessons Learned and how to work with the results of this process.In addition to these key learning outcomes, you will also have the opportunity to evidence the following skills through completing this assignment:Critical thinkingProblem solvingProfessional writingAssignment Instructions:For this assignment, you are to write a three page paper describing the key elements of the project closure and lessons learned process. In order to do well on the this paper, you need to provide not only an overview of the key elements of the closure process, but you need to address why these elements are important and necessary, and you should also speak to how the main elements should be completed. Within the content of your writing on project closure, you should provide information on how one should conduct a lessons learned, who should be involved, how information might be gathered, and how the results can and should be used in a consistent manner. Please review the general guidelines below as well as the attached rubric for information on how I will be specifically evaluating your submission.Here are some general guidelines for formatting:Make appropriate use of title and headersPaper should follow APA6 formatting guidelines throughoutPaper should cite a minimum of two sourcesPaper should be no less than 3 pages and no more than 4 pages in length (this is the body of the paper, and it does not include the title page or reference page)All Assignment files are due by 11:59 pm, Saturday.Click on the assignment title above to submit the assignment.
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PJM 5900 – Final Exam Review
1
Learning Objectives—Week 1
• Define project management
• Define a project
• Identify the attributes of projects
• Differentiate projects from maintenance and Operations
• Identify the benefits of project management
• Identify the primary generic constraints in project
management
• Demonstrate an understanding of project management
processes
• Describe the project management knowledge areas
2
Define project management: Project management is a discipline for the planning and managing resources for the
successful completion of a specific effort with specific goals and objectives. It is a set of best practices for planning,
executing and controlling project work.
Define a project: A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique deliverable, a product, service or result.
Identify the attributes of projects: projects are temporary, unique and deliver a product, service or result.
Differentiate projects from maintenance and operations: Project work is unique, the approach is adaptability to change,
activities are based on budgeting which is critical, the sequence of activities must be determined, the work crosses
organizational units and the reporting relationship is informal. General management is routine, managed by exception,
periodic budgeting is important, activities are pre-determined, the work is done within an organizational unit and the
reporting relationship is formal.
Identify the benefits of project management: The benefits of project management are better control of financial, physical
and human resources, improved customer relations, shorter development times, lower costs, higher quality, increased
reliability and predictability, better internal co-ordination, improved focus and worker moral.
Identify the primary generic constraints in project management: The triple constraints are scope, cost and schedule. As
scope increases or decreases the schedule and cost either increase or decrease..
Demonstrate an understanding of project management processes: The project management processes are initiating,
planning, executing, monitoring and controlling and closing.
Describe the project management knowledge areas. The project management knowledge areas are; integration
management, scope management, schedule management, cost management, quality management, resource management,
communication management, risk management, procurement management and stakeholder management.
2
Learning Objectives—Week Two
• Define portfolio and program
• Differentiate between process groups and project life
cycle phases
• Identify project management process groups and project
processes
• Explain the interrelationships between portfolio,
program and project management
• Identify the characteristics of portfolios and programs
• Classify projects into portfolios and programs according
to their characteristics
3
Define portfolio and Program: A portfolio is projects, programs, subsidiary portfolios and operations managed as a group to
achieve strategic objectives. A program is related projects, subsidiary programs and program activities that are managed in a
coordinated manner to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually.
Differentiate between process groups and project life cycle phases: Process groups are The project processes are the processes,
tools and techniques used to ensure the success of the project. The project life cycle characteristics are starting the project,
organizing the project, carrying out the project work and closing the project. PMBOK defines it as the series of phases that a
project passes through from its start to its completion.
Identify project management process groups and project processes: The project management process groups are: The project
management process groups are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and control and closing. There are 49 knowledge
areas processes that fall into the five project management process groups.
Explain the interrelationships between portfolio, program and project management: A project is a temporary endeavor
undertaken to create a unique product, service or task. Projects are grouped into programs which are related project, subsidiary
programs and program activities that are managed in a coordinated manner to obtain benefits not available from managing
them individually. Portfolios are project, programs, subsidiary portfolios and operations managed as a group to achieve
strategic objectives. Program and project management focus on doing programs and projects the right way and portfolio
management focuses on doing the right programs and projects
Identify the characteristics of portfolios and programs: Programs are related projects that look to optimize the projects as a
whole rather than individually, resources can be shared to keep all projects on schedule. Portfolios like financial portfolios
focus on the global strategy to ensure the organization is working on the rights projects, investing in the right areas employing
the correct resources on the right projects and ensuring that the projects are consistent with the strategy of the organization.
Classify project into portfolios and programs according to their characteristics: Think about developing a new airplane. The
engine design is the project, propulsion design is the program and the entire aircraft is the portfolio.
3
Learning Objectives—Week 3
• Explain how projects are initiated within organizations
• Describe the processes of the initiating process group
• Identify the inputs of the initiating process group
• Identify and describe the components of a project charter
• Create a project charter
• Define the term stakeholder and identify the key
stakeholders of a project
4
Explain how projects are initiated within organizations: Business cases are developed on strategic ideas. The
business cases are presented to Senior Management who select the projects that will proceed. Project are
selected based on their value (financial, competitive and strategic) to the organization, a mandate by
regulators and expect judgement.
Describe the processes of the initiating process group. The processes in the initiating group are Develop
Project Charter and Identify stakeholders. The Project Charter defines, at a high level, the business
justification, scope, budget and schedule for the project. Stakeholders are individuals, groups, or
organizations that may affect, be affected by or perceive themselves to be affected by a decision, activity, or
outcome of a project, program or portfolio.
Identify the inputs of the initiating process group: The inputs of the Project Charter are the business case,
agreements, enterprise environmental factors (EEF), and organizational process assets (OPA). The inputs of
identifying stakeholders are the Project Charter, Business Case, project management plan project documents,
agreements, EEF and OPA.
Identify and describe the components of a project charter: The components of the project charter are project
purpose, measurable project objectives and related success criteria, high level requirements, high level project
description, boundaries and key deliverables, overall project risk, summary milestone schedule, preapproved
financial resources and key stakeholder list.
Define the term stakeholder: Stakeholders are individuals, groups, or organizations that may affect, be
affected by or perceive themselves to be affected by a decision, activity, or outcome of a project, program or
portfolio.
4
Learning Objectives—Week 4
• Describe the Project Management Institute (PMI)’s project
management framework
• Identify the elements of the project management framework
• Explain how the project management knowledge areas are
integrated with the process groups and the project management
processes to create a practical project management framework

Identify the processes of the planning process group

Explain the purpose of a Requirements Traceability Matrix

Compare and contrast the PMI’s project management (PM)
framework with other PM frameworks such as PRINCE2 and Six
Sigma
5
1.
PMI Project Management Framework is Process Groups and Knowledge areas.
2.
The Process Groups are: Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling and Closing. The Knowledge Ares are:
Integration Management, Scope Management, Schedule Management, Cost Management, Quality Management, Resource
Management, Communications Management, Risk Management, Procurement Management and Stakeholder Management
3.
The process groups and knowledge areas build on each other through progressive elaboration. Using Inputs, Tools and
Techniques and Outputs. Inputs are based on processes you’ve completed in prior process and Enterprise Environmental
factors and Organizational Process Assets. Tools and Techniques are the processes within the knowledge areas and the
outputs flow to the next steps.
4.
The planning process group includes: Project Management Plan, Scope Management, Requirements, Scope, WBS, Schedule
Management, Activities, Sequence Activities, Activities Duration, Schedule, Cost Management, Estimate Costs, Budget,
Quality Management, Resource Management, Activity Resources, Communication Management, Risk Management, ID
Risks, Qualitative Risk Analysis, Quantitative Risk Analysis, Risk Resources, Procurement Management and Stakeholder
Engagement.
5.
Prevents Scope Creep by ensuring that all requirement tie back and forward to activities.
Six Sigma improves quality of output.
Waterfall
PRINCE2
Initiating
Start
Planning
Plan
Executing
Monitoring
Direct
Manage
Stage
Close
Close
5
Learning Objectives—Week 5
• Identify the processes involved in the planning process group
• Define the scope of a project
• Draft a Project Scope Statement
• Create a Work Breakdown Structure
• Describe the characteristics of a quality work breakdown
structure (WBS)
• Differentiate between a process-based breakdown structure
and a work breakdown structure
• Differentiate between project deliverables and project activities
6
Identify the processes involved in the planning process group. The processes involved in the
planning process are; scope schedule and costs.
Define the scope of a project. The scope of the project is the sum of the products, services and
results to be provided as a project.
What is a project scope statement? The description of the project scope, major deliverables,
assumptions and constraints.
A WBS decomposes deliverables into sub-deliverable and work packages. Work packages are the
smallest deliverable to which cost and duration are defined and managed.
A quality WBS decomposes the quality standards into at least 2 levels and provides the quality
standards
Process-based WBS defines work in process steps (work phases or function). The process steps
taken to deliver each deliverable. In a construction project it might be design, administration,
excavate, demolition, etc. The WBS defines work based on deliverables and decomposes the
deliverables into sub-deliverables and work packages.
Differentiate between project deliverables and project activities. Project deliverables are part of
Scope planning and Project Activities are part of scheduling activities
6
Learning Objectives—Week 6
• Define activities for a project schedule management plan
• Create an activity list for a project schedule management plan
• Define milestones for a project schedule management plan
• Estimate activity durations for a project schedule management
plan
• Distinguish between duration and effort in effort-driven
scheduling models
• Compare and contrast activity duration estimating techniques
such as PERT estimating techniques, parametric estimating
techniques, and expert judgment
7
• Define Activities is the process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to
be performed to produce the project deliverables.
• Create an Activity List by decomposing the WBS deliverables into a series of
activities/tasks. Continue to decompose until you reach the most appropriate level for
planning. WBS Deliverables are nouns Activities/Tasks are verbs.
• Milestones are time-bounded but don’t represent work, they are used as checkpoints.
They are also called gates, phase gates and decision points. In Rolling Wave initiation
planning, you add key milestones in the initial long range plans.
• Estimate activity duration methods are expert judgment, analogous estimating,
parametric estimating PERT estimating (O+4M+P)/6
• Distinguish between duration and effort. Duration is the total elapsed time between
the beginning and completion of the activity. Effort is the actual time to complete a
task. In an effort-driven scheduling method the duration is shortened or lengthened as
resources are added or removed, while work remains unchanged.
• Compare and contrast: Expert Judgment is using SMEs both those assigned to the
team and other to estimate duration based on their experience. Analogous Estimating
refers to using a similar model based on historical data. Parametric Estimating is
using statistic applied to a historic model. PERT estimates are a more rigorous
statistical tool which is most appropriately used when the project has a great deal of
uncertainly.
7
Learning Objectives—Week 7
• Develop a project schedule by defining dependencies between
project activities
• Differentiate between AON and AOA networks
• Explain and create different types of dependencies in a project
schedule
• Create a network diagram for a project schedule
• Calculate and analyze the critical path of a project schedule
• Differentiate between burst and merge activities
• Differentiate between lead and lag time in a project schedule
• Calculate slack time in a project schedule
8
Develop a project schedule by defining dependencies between project activities. There are
three types of dependencies Mandatory: logically there is no way to complete the task unless
they are put in a certain order. Discretionary the order is defined by the team. External are
determined by someone outside the project. Additionally there are 4 different dependency
scheduling types. Finish-to-Start Task A finishes before Task B. Start-to-Start. Task B starts
when Task A starts. Finish-to-Finish Task B finishes when Task A finishes. Start-to-Finish
Task A starts when Task B finishes.
An AON network is Activity on Node and is the method used by MS Project. AOA is
Activity on Arrow which is usually used with a PERT chart.
A Merge Activity is an activity that has two or more preceding activities on which it
depends.
A Burst Activity is an activity that has more than one activity immediately following it.
Lead time is an acceleration of the successor activity and can be used only on finish-to-start
activity relationships. Lag time is a delay in the successor activity and can be found on all
activity relationship types. Lag time is generally scheduled in the beginning of the Project.
Lead time is generally scheduled as the project progresses.
Slack is determined by a backward pass through the critical path. It represents the amount of
time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project’s completion.
8
Final Review
• Give an example of:
– Mandatory Dependency
– Discretionary Dependency
– External Dependency
• What is a:
– AOA Network Diagram
– AON Network Diagram
9
There are 3 kinds of Dependencies or Relationships:
– Mandatory Dependency– Logically, there is no way to complete the tasks unless
they are put in a certain order; e.g., you can’t start testing a drug until the drug has
been developed.
– Discretionary Dependency– these relationships are suggested by and defined by
the project team; e.g., We will not start testing drug until we have determined that
the product is safe and effective in monkeys
— External Dependency – are determined by someone outside the project; e.g. the
drug tests are dependent upon the supplier bringing the syringes chemicals to create
the drug.
What is a:
– Activity on Arrow (AOA Network Diagram) are usually used with PERT Charts,
these are the earliest type of network diagram; they can only be used to show simple
FS (Finish-to-Start) relationships so they have begun to be replaced by:
– Activity on Node (AON Network Diagram), which are also called Precedence
Diagrams are typically used with the Critical Path Method. They can show more
complex relationships and have become the preferred method for most PMs. This is
the method MS Project uses.
9
Final Review
• What tasks need to be done first?
10
This is an example of an Activity on Arrow Network Diagram
• Each Arrow represents an Activity – notice that the activity is given a name (in
this case A, B, etc.) and assigned a duration (e.g., A = 10)
• The circle or “node” represents the start and end point for the activity. So the
numbers in the nodes represent the point just before the activity begins, not the
activity itself.
• The Arrows point from left to right and they can only represent FS (Finish-toStart) relationships
• We can look for “paths” through this network. One path would be A, and once A
is done then D and then F and then H to the 7th step. Which we’ll say represents
the end of the time segment we’re looking at. We’re not concerned with when
activities actually occur at this point – only with their dependencies and how
long they take. So that path A-D-F-H would be 10+8+7+2 days = 27 days.
The task which needs to be done first is A and/or B.
10
Final Review
• What are the paths in this Network Diagram?
• What is the critical path?
11
Another use for the Activity on Node (AON) Network Diagram is to determine Critical Path. You will recall that
Critical Path is the sequence of activities that represents the longest path through a project, which determines the
shortest possible duration. The Critical Path if delayed would delay the completion of the project. Once you have
a start date, the actual dates appear on the nodes.
The Critical Path in this example is A – C – E – G – H. We determine this as follows: we work left-to- right in
what is called a “forward pass” adding the duration to the earliest start time of each activity. Activity A takes 2
days and has no predecessors. Activity A’s earliest start time is 0 as it has no predecessor and the earliest finish
time is 2 days. Activity C’s predecessor is Activity A so the earliest start time is 2 adding the duration of 2 the
earliest finish time is 4 days.
Activities not on the Critical Path can be delayed and as a result have slack or float. Float is the amount of time
that a schedule activity can be delayed or extended from the early start date without delaying the project finish
date or violating a schedule constraint. We determine the amount of float by working right-to-left in what is
called a “backward pass”. We start with the latest finish date and subtract the duration to determine the latest start
time. You will notice that Activity F can start as late as day 10 and Activity B can start as late as day 1. The
importance of this is that if you are running behind and you have resources working on Activity F you can deploy
the resources from Activity F to one of the other Activities on the Critical Path and reduce the duration.
MS Project will populate the Critical Path based on the duration. MS Project makes the assumption that there are
5 days in a week. As a result in this example, MS Project will calculate the duration of the Critical Path as 19
days as it will add two weekends to the original 15 days.
The completed critical path drawing is found on page 15 in week 7.
11
Learning Objectives—Week 8

Define the “Estimate Activity Resources” Process

Identify Resource needs for a project

Assign Resources to a p …
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