Solved by verified expert:POSTER PRESENTATION GRADING CRITERIAElementsMaximum PointsTitle adequately captures key concepts and the population under investigation. Beneath heading, acknowledges mentor and university school of nursing10Abstract adequately summarizes the research problem, study methods, and important findings in 150 – 300 words.10Introduction describes sufficient detail to understand the problem/need and significance for study.10The report is well-organized with an orderly, logical presentation of ideas and continuity of thought and expression.10The report includes a sufficient amount of detail to permit a thorough critique of the study’s purpose, conceptual framework, design & methods, handling of ethical issues, analysis of data, and interpretation.10The report is visually appealing and easy to read from a distance10The report effectively combines text with tables, graphs, figures for expected results10The report avoids biases, exaggerations, or distortions.10The report is written using appropriately tentative language.10The report is well-written without grammatical errors.10TOTAL:100
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CREATING A POSTER
BY DR. LINDA EANES
PUTTING TOGETHER A RESEARCH
• RESEARCH BEGINS WITH WRITING A PROPOSAL FOR THE STUDY THAT YOU WOULD LIKE
TO CONCUCT. A PROPOSAL IS USED TO ATTAIN IRB APPROVAL AND/OR ACCEPTANCE
FOR A GRANT.
• MASTER-LEVEL NURSES SHOULD BE ABLE TO CONDUCT RESEARCH
• ALTHOUGH YOU WILL NOT ACTUALLY CONDUCT YOUR STUDY (UNLESS YOU WANT TO
SEEK IRB APPROVAL AND HAVE A MENTOR TO GUIDE YOU), YOU ARE EXPECTED TO
CREATE AN ORIGINAL RESEARCH PROPOSAL.
• A PROPOSAL IS EXACTLY THAT “YOU ARE PROPOSING TO CONDUCT YOUR STUDY”
THEREFORE IT IS WRITTEN IN FUTURE TENSE “THE INVESTIGATOR OF THIS EXPERIMENTAL
STUDY WILL…” THE EXPECTED RESULTS WILL SHOW A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN X AND Y.”
• A POSTER PRESENTATION IS AN ABBREVIATED VERSION OR “SNAP SHOT” OF YOUR
TITLE OF YOUR POSTER
• THE TITLE OF YOUR POSTER SHOULD SUCCINCTLY CONVEY KEY
• THE TITLE: COMMUNICATES KEY VARIABLES AND POPULATION
• EXAMPLE: IMPROVING HEALTHY EATING AMONG
UNDERSERVED CHILDREN IN RURAL SOUTH TEXAS
• THE ABSTRACT IS A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF YOUR STUDY/PROPOSAL PLACED AT THE
BEGINNING OF YOUR PRESENTATION/MANUSCRIPT.
• IT IS WRITTEN USING FUTURE TENSE, COMPLETE SENTENCES, AND IN ONE PARAGRAPH.
• IT SHOULD INCLUDE: THE STUDY PURPOSE, STUDY DESIGN, SAMPLING, SAMPLE SIZE AND
IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUR POPULATION, METHODS USED TO ANSWER
YOUR RESEARCH QUESTION(S)/HYPOTHESIS(ES), DURATION OF STUDY, DATA ANALYSIS
• RESULTS/FINDINGS: STATISTICAL TEST THAT WILL BE USED AND THE EXPECTED RESULTS.
• EXPECTED CONCLUSIONS OR IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE
• YOUR ABSTRACT SHOULD BE NO MORE THAN 250 -300 WORDS (FOR ACCEPTANCE TO
PRESENT AT A SPECIFIC CONFERENCE, YOU SHOULD FOLLOW THEIR GUIDELINES)
THIS SECTION IS IN ONE TO TWO
• THE BACKGROUND PROVIDES THE READER WITH A CLEAR DESCRIPTION OF THE
ISSUE/PROBLEM WHICH NEEDS TO BE ADDRESSED. YOU ARE “BUILDING YOUR
• IT PROVIDES A PERSUASIVE CONTEXT FOR THE NEED FOR YOUR RESEARCH
STUDY. YOU WANT TO “HOOK” THE READER.
• THE PROBLEM ITSELF SHOULD BE STATED CLEARLY AND WITH ENOUGH
CONTEXTUAL DETAIL TO ESTABLISH WHY YOUR STUDY NEEDS TO BE
• THE READER SHOULD HAVE A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT WILL BE
INVESTIGATED AND HOW IT WILL BE STUDIED
• THE BACKGROUND SHOULD ALSO INCLUDE THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
(IF YOU HAVE INCLUDED THE DETAILS IN YOUR ABSTRACT, YOU DO
NOT HAVE TO REPEAT THE DETAILS FOR A POSTER. ONLY FOR YOUR
WRITTEN PROPOSAL SHOULD YOU PROVIDE VERY SPECIFIC DETAILS)
• SAMPLE (WHO OR WHAT) NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS & IMPORTANT
CHARACTERISTICS (EXAMPLE: FIFTY TELEMETRY NURSES EMPLOYED IN AN
ACUTE CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH TEXAS OR TEN GRADUATE NURSING STUDENTS
EXAMINING THE IMPACT OF NUTRITION EDUCATION ON BEHAVIORAL CHANGE
ON THIRD AND FOURTH GRADERS).
• TREATMENTS (DESCRIBE IN ENOUGH DETAIL FOR THE READER TO UNDERSTAND)
• INSTRUMENTS OR MEANS OF MEASURING OUTCOME VARIABLES UNDER STUDY
• DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES (EXAMPLE: THE YUMMY MYPLATE
STANDARDIZED TESTS WERE ADMINISTERED BEFORE AND FOLLOWING THE
• BULLET POINTS MAY BE USED IN THIS SECTION FOR YOUR POSTER
• DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURES/STATISTICAL TESTS THAT WILL BE USED TO
ANSWER EACH RESEARCH QUESTION (MAY USE/INCLUDE GRAPHS/TABLES)
• EXPECTED RESULTS OF EACH TESTS AND SIGNIFICANCE (DID THE RESULTS
SUPPORT OR REJECT YOUR HYPOTHESIS?) EXAMPLE: ALL FOUR OF THE
NUTRITIONAL LEARNING MODULES YIELDED A SIGNIFICANTLY POSITIVE
DIFFERENCE (P < .001) BETWEEN THE PRE AND POSTTEST NUTRITION LEARNING. • DISCUSSION: INTERPRETATION OF EXPECTED RESULTS, IMPLICATIONS TO NURSING, STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF STUDY (A SHORT PARAGRAPH) CONCLUSIONS • DISCUSS THE CLINICAL AND RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS TO NURSING IN A SENTENCE OR TWO OR A SHORT PARAGRAPH REFERENCES • ANY SOURCE CITED IN YOUR POSTER • USE APA FORMAT EXCEPT FOR POSTERS KEEP LEFT FLUSH (DO NOT INDENT SECOND LINE) FINAL POSTER • EYE APPEALING: YOU WANT YOUR POSTER TO CATCH THE EYE OF THE READER • IT SHOULD BE ARTFUL BUT NOT CLUTTERED • YOUR POSTER WILL BE 24 INCHES X 36 INCHES • THE PRINT SHOULD BE LARGE ENOUGH TO READ 2 TO 3 FEET AWAY • DO NOT USE DARK BACKGROUND AND DARK PRINT (IMPOSSIBLE TO READ!)OR DO NOT USE SOLID WHITE BACKGROUND AND BLACK PRINT WITHOUT ANY PICTURES OR ADDED COLOR (BORING!) • IT SHOULD BE ORGANIZED • YOU CAN GOOGLE “FREE SCIENTIFIC POSTER TEMPLATES” WHICH CAN BE USED TO CREATE YOUR POSTER PRESENTATION PRINTING AND MOUNTING • YOU CAN HAVE YOUR TEMPLATE PRINTED AT THE EDINBURG LIBRARY. (YOU MAY WANT TO DOWNLOAD IT ONTO A FLASH DRIVE, BECAUSE A PRINTED COPY OF YOUR TEMPLATE MAY BE SOMEWHAT DISTORTED WHEN ENLARGED) • YOU WILL HAVE TO TAKE YOUR ENLARGED POSTER PRINT TO STAPLES, FED EX OFFICE, HOBBY LOBBY, OR MICHAELS TO HAVE IT MOUNTED. • DO NOT TRY TO MOUNT YOUR POSTER YOURSELF. A PROFESSIONAL POSTER SHOULD BE PROFESSIONALLY MOUNTED. (REMEMBER, YOUR POSTER MUST BE EYE APPEALING AND PROFESSIONAL. IF IT IS BUBBLING, IS SLOPPY, OR UNREADABLE, YOUR GRADE ON PRESENTATION MAY SUFFER). • YOU WILL ALSO NEED A PORTABLE EASEL TO PLACE YOUR POSTER ON AT THE SIGMA CONFERENCE. • MORE DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS SHOULD BE FOUND IN YOUR COURSE SYLLABUS WRITTEN PROPOSAL • YOU SHOULD FOLLOW APA FORMAT FOR YOUR WRITTEN PROPOSAL. • IT IS MUCH MORE DETAILED THAN A SCIENTIFIC POSTER. • THE PRIMARY COMPONENTS OF A WRITTEN PROPOSAL INCLUDE (1) TITLE; (2)ABSTRACT FOLLOWED BY KEYWORDS; (3) BACKGROUND OR INTRODUCTION WHICH INCLUDES: (a) PROBLEM STATEMENT; (b) STATEMENT OF PURPOSE; (c) RESEARCH QUESTION(S) (AND HYPOTHESIS IF QUANTITATIVE STUDY); (4) REVIEW OF LITERATURE INCLUDING THE THEORY THAT GUIDES YOUR STUDY; (5) STUDY METHODS IN DETAIL; (6) RESULTS (a) ANALYSIS PROCEDURES, (b) FINDINGS, THAT IS, EXPECTED KEY FINDINGS/RESULTS OF EACH RESEARCH QUESTION; (7) DISCUSSION (INTERPRETING YOUR FINDINGS. WHAT DO YOUR FINDINGS SUGGEST? WHAT ARE THE STRENGTHS/LIMITATIONS OF YOUR STUDY?) (8) CONCLUSIONS INCLUDES A BRIEF SUMMARY OF STUDY AND NEEDS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. Running head: NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE Critical Care Nurses Depression and Suicide compared to Medical Telemetry
Jesus G Rebolledo
The University of Texas at Rio Grande Valley
Dr. Linda Eanes
March 17, 2019
NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE
Nurses are professionals trained to save human lives. A large number of nurses experience
depression and some even end up committing suicide thanks largely to their exposure to frequent
patient deaths. The purpose of the proposed research project is to use the case-control design to
compare three different groups of nurses working in different areas within an acute care hospital
on their risk of depression. The three groups include nurses in the telemetry unit, intensive care
unit, and medical-surgical unit. To measure the depression experienced by the nurses, the Beck
Depression Inventory would be used. The statistical tool that would be employed is ANOVA.
The expected result is that nurses in the ICU department have the highest risk of depression and
therefore suicide due to the fact that they witness more patient deaths than nurses in the other
departments. The expected conclusion is that ICU nurses are at a greater risk of depression
followed by telemetry nurses. The risk of depression is lowest among nurses in the medicalsurgical unit since patient deaths are lowest in this department.
NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE
Critical Care Nurses Depression and Suicide compared to Medical Telemetry
According to the American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN), critical care
nurses have 9 advocacy roles to address. The rights of the patients, intermediary and intervention
roles are the first duties to be delivered by nurses. Additionally, they are expected to monitor the
quality of care provided, assist patient when provided facility fails and act as champions where
patients are unable to speak for themselves (Nagy et al., 2015). Other duties are representing the
patient’s needs to a medical doctor, supporting patient’s spokesperson and assisting in transfer
care. Some working conditions like cleaning patient’s wounds, tracking life support are among
duties delivered by critical care nurses. Just like the family members of the patient, critical care
nurses are subjected to emotional stress especially when a critical patient succumbs to death.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading killer disease according to the American report on
the leading cause of death. Patients are admitted to hospitals where they are placed under the
care of medical telemetry nurses. These nurses observe, analyze and record patient progress on
the electrocardiogram and report vital signs to the in charge. Additionally, they ensure quality
care provisions, assist patients when the machine fails and convey information from the patient
to the medical team. This progressive nurse is required to assist family members in delivery
emotional support to the patients thus exposing them to stress and depression just like the family
members. According to reports on trends in nurses, stress and depression originating from the
working environment have led nurses to commit suicides (Cummins et al., 2015). In some cases,
the patient’s survival may be impossible but the nurses must remain composed. This situation
forms the basis of this study that will be conducted in Arizona State.
NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE
Nurses are professionals trained to save human lives. Critical care nurses have duties to
save patients’ lives as well as addressing issues professionally in information delivery on the
progress of patients. Consequently, addressing patients’ issues requires the highest application of
emotional intelligence. On the other hand, nurse job description requires appropriate decision
when support machines fail to respond as well as influencing the patients to make positive
decisions that will lead to preserving life and reducing deaths (Khan et al., 2019). However, this
job is facing threat as nurses are subjected to depression that leads to suicidal cases in some
Causes of depression among nurses arise from their working environments. Taking, for
example, the critical care nurses witness deaths of patients admitted at the ICU on daily basis.
According to a report provided by expert analysis, about 10 patients die while under the care of
nurses in the ICU (Cummins et al., 2015). On the other hand, medical telemetry nurses form a
vulnerable group that attends to patients with heart complications. According to the Forbes
report, cardiovascular heart disease is the leading killer disease among Americans. Medical
Telemetry nurses are supposed to monitor patients’ conditions as well as making decisions on
providing alternatives when support machines fail.
From these incidents, research has proved that nurses suffer depression that leads to loss
of life through suicidal cases. Depressed nurses also tend to make ineffective decisions and have
poor work performance (Ranse, 2019). Deterioration of nurses’ mental intelligence is bringing a
threat to the wellbeing of patients admitted hospitals. This formed the background of this study
to identify the most vulnerable group that suffers depression and to some extent suicidal cases
NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE
between the critical care nurses in the ICU, medical-surgical nurses, and the telemetry nurses.
The findings from the study will help in enhancing parent care conditions provided by nurses.
Purpose, Problem Statement and Significance of the Problem
During the study, the general objective that will lead the research is to identify the type of
nurses exposed to frequent death of patients leading to depression and suicide. The specific
objectives will be to obtain statistics on the number of nurses lost to depression and suicide, and
to establish the number of deaths that ICU nurses, telemetry nurses, and medical-surgical nurses
are exposed to. Additionally, the research will seek to establish the relationship between
depression and nurses’ suicidal cases instead of seeking alternative measures. In line with the
objectives of the study, the research question will be: Are critical care nurses in the ICU who are
exposed to frequent patient deaths at higher risk of major depression and suicide than medicalsurgical nurses and telemetry nurses who have less exposure to patient deaths?
This question will analyze the similarity in nurses working conditions and the number of
deaths recorded per group. On the other hand, it will answer the question of increased risks of
depression and suicide and associate it to mental issues that arise when nurses witness patients
dying. The research question will also answer the question on the most vulnerable group of
nurses that needs attention to improve services provided by nurses in hospitals. The hypothesis
of the study is that nurses in the medical-surgical unit and telemetry unit are not as highly
depressed as nurses in the ICU department.
NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE
According to the World Health Organization, about 15% of individuals in a given age
group suffer from clinical depression in their lifetime. In addition to this, 5% of the affected
individuals are males while 9% of the population is made up of females. According to studies
conducted, one of the causes of depression is an imbalance that originates from the
neurotransmitters. The experts explain that neurotransmitters coordination may experience a
shortage in supply thus leading to the occurrence of clinical depression in an individual (Brown,
2019). This type of depression is chemically triggered. Another cause of depression is sexual
hormones that exist in an individual. Women tend to suffer depression more than males. The
influx in female hormones trigger depression as experienced during the menstrual period,
childbirth and perimenopause stages of their lives. According to doctor’s reports, depression
among females affects them from teenage until the latter stages of their lives.
The seasonal affective disorder is a type of depression that is caused by disturbance on
the normal cardiac rhythm of the body. Disturbance in circadian rhythm is triggered by light
entering the eye, which is experienced in winter seasons. People residing in colder regions suffer
this type of depression. Poor nutrition can trigger depression in an individual. Studies have
revealed that diets low in omega-3, fatty acids or imbalance ratios of omega six are associated
with increased rates of depression (Coppens et al., 2018). On the other hand, taking too much
sugar from junk foods may trigger depression. Poor nutrition is normally influenced by mental
conditions that symbolize the early symptoms of depression in an individual.
Stressful events in life such as death may overwhelm an individual leading to depression.
According to studies on life events related stress, hormone cortisol is scattered during stress
leading to the production of serotonin by neurotransmitter which results in depression. Grief and
NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE
loss of loved one contribute to grief and feeling of emptiness. This results in troubled sleep, poor
appetite and low interest in normal activities. Continuous feelings of grief and loss result in
depression that may affect an individual. Depression is a serious issue that affects lives in society
and will result in suicide or death.
According to Bell et al. (2018), depression is a common bet serious mood disorder
affecting how we feel, think or carry ourselves in daily activities. According to this definition,
forms of depressions are persistent depressive disorder, postpartum disorder, and psychotic
depression. Another definition of depression is that it is illness marked by sadness worthless and
hopelessness arising from problems surrounding an individual (Oliveira, 2018). According to
this argument, depression can be caused by environmental factors that limit an individual’s
capacity to concentrate on daily activities like work or leaning. According to this definition, a
model is provided to illustrate how different factors of the environment will influence an
emotional intelligence and lead to worthlessness as well as hopelessness that leads to individual’s
ending his/her life. A model is applied to explain how stress develops in an individual and affects
the life of the person in the future as follows.
Figure 1: Showing model of the life of an individual
NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE
The proposed study has several limitations and a few assumptions would be made.
During the study, limitations will be on the study topic to avoid additional expenses that will be
incurred in the evaluation of other parameters. This will involve an evaluation of activities
managed by critical care ICU nurses, medical-surgical nurses, and telemetry nurses that may lead
to depression or suicide among them. On the other hand, during the study, limitations will be
considered on the geographical scope where related risks that will contribute to the development
of stress among nurses. The study will apply random sampling but limitations will be allowed
where participants will be allowed to recommend other participants based on their experience.
According to the planning of the research, the allocated time to evaluate risks associated with
depression and suicide will be one month. However, other issues associated with depression and
health-related risks may involve analysis of finer details that will provide the required evidence
to show the vulnerable group.
During data collection, some respondents may be hostile and reluctant to provide
essential information on the risk factors. This will entail provisions to attempt the questions or
walk out of the study. Additional participants will be recruited in the course of the study to meet
the required numbers for the collection of comparative data. Researchers may be exposed to
critiques from the respondents on questions asked against their expectations. This will involve
linking findings provided to make conclusions. From the data collected, assumptions will be
made that the information collected is provided in an honest opinion. The study will apply both
qualitative and quantitative research approach where analysis will involve making assumptions
on missing links across depression causative factors and the group that is likely to be affected the
most. Assumptions will be made after considerations made on primary data to enhance reliability
NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE
Approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) would be obtained. Approval from
this administrative body is important since the proposed study will use human subjects. The
study will follow all IRB rules and protection of the human participants would be ensured.
Nursing staffs working in a major hospital organization would be included in the study.
These are nurses who experience depression as a result of their nursing role. The depression
mostly comes about when they witness the deaths of their patients.
The study will enlist 100 participants who will be selected at random. They would be
recruited from three different departments of a large hospital: medical-surgical unit (n = 35),
telemetry unit (n = 35), and intensive care unit (n = 30). Simple random sampling technique
would be utilized in which every nurse will have an equal chance of being chosen. The inclusion
criteria are as follows: work in telemetry, intensive care unit (ICU), or medical-surgical unit;
experience of at least 1 year at the hospital; and experienced stresses or depression related to
nursing. The depress …
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