Solved by verified expert:I have a follow up to an assignment you helped me with…..Here it is Now that you’ve submitted your research topic, research question/s, and your communication theory, it’s time to think in-depth about you plan on answering your research questions. This is called your research methodology. You will be sharing your research methodology during your final presentation.Let’s think back to the example I provided you all for the project:Topic: Representations of the “Absentee Father” in Love and Hip Hop: New YorkResearch Question (you can have more than one):RQ1: How is the African American male portrayed in Love and Hip Hop: New York season six?RQ2: What specific characteristics or inter-episode trends and themes emerge in Love and Hip Hop: New York?Theory (Find the list of theories under the Lesson 3 Module): Critical race theoryTo answer RQ1 and RQ2, my research methodology is as follows:I will conduct a critical discourse analysis (an analysis of discourse) on Love and Hip Hop: New York season six. There are 13 episodes in total for this season. However, the 13th episode in a reunion episode, therefore, I only be conducted my analysis on the first 12 episodes. Since my research topic focuses on African American mean, I only analyzed the discourse of the five African American male cast members on the show: Papoose, Mendeecees, Peter Gunz, DJ Self, and Rich Dollaz.In my research methodology, you’ll notice that I did not just simply say that I watched Love and Hip Hop: New York to conducted my research. I told you exactly which season was watched, which episode was excluded, what type of information (discourse not visuals) that I focused on, and from whom.Now it is time for you to submit your own research methodology. Then I will give you feedback to move forward as I did when you submitted your topic and questions. I will attatch the paper you wrote so you know what the assignment should represent.
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Media representation refers to ways through which the media depicts certain groups,
ideas, communities, and experiences based on a value perspective or ideological perspective.
Media representations have gone to extends of not only mirroring or reflecting reality but also
have served to create new realities. In today’s world, there is a fascination in both academic
discourse and media concerning Islam and the representations from the west. This obsession is
marked with negative identities in which the worldwide media portrayal of Muslims and Islam is
primarily negative as it depicts Muslims entirely as fanatical, prejudiced, violent terrorists and
extremists. The portrayal of Muslims as terrorists has developed over the years because of the
experiences that occurred in the world. The September 11 attack in the United States among
other terrorist attacks were carried out or masterminded by people behind the Islamic religion. It
is because of these experiences that media outlets have resulted in depicting Islam and Muslims
as malicious people (Samaie & Malmir, 2017).
At the mention of Islam or Muslims, people have been fine-tuned to think that a bomb
may explode any time or even any other act of terrorism happening. Suspicion has been the order
of the due to the information that has been communicated to the society by media houses.
Muslims and the Islamic religion is entirely regarded to comprise of people who are inhuman.
They are depicted as people who do not recognize diversity and the value for human life.
Whether in filmmaking, journalism or any other kind of mainstream media, the manner in which
Muslims and Arabs, in general, are portrayed in the western media develops certain concepts,
assumptions, and values concerning them in the minds of the western media audience. The
media, therefore, plays a significant role as social actors since they reinforce boundaries among
groups by intensifying the danger even when it does not exist. In an environment where Islam
has become the main focus from media houses, the manner in which it is reported appears to
converge on a dramatic situation (Starck, 2018). In this research paper, the misrepresentation of
people of Middle Eastern ancestry who are mostly associated with Islam on the television media
will be studied.
Literature Review and Bibliography
According to Samaie & Malmir (2017), their study focused on over 670,000-word media
texts from stories aired in United States news media which were published between the years
2001 and 2015 to understand how critical discourses were used to depict Islam and Muslims. The
study established that generally Islam and Muslims are linked with religious radicalism, Islamic
militants and violence. The article shows how the news stories have negatively misrepresented
the Muslims to the extent that multicultural coexistence does not have a place for Islam in some
states in the united states.
Consequently, according to a Reuters Institute Digital News Report published in 2017,
among the variety of media sources from which people get news television was ranked as the
main source. It was further established that as people are increasingly accessing news over the
internet, the news sources in the online platforms are often apps and websites of legacy television
channels and newspapers. These sources carry information that facilitates and represents society
as diverse. However, these news sources continue to depict some communities in negative ways.
Even communities that are made of diverse cultures and religions are made to understand that
Islam and Muslims are exceptionally difficult and violent people to interact and live with. They
are portrayed as people who are likely to threaten the peace of society more often than any other
group of people (Newman, Fletcher, Kalogeropoulos, Levy, & Nielsen, 2017).
Media representation has a problem of portraying particular groups and related issues as
characterized by a negativity bias and stereotyping. Research shows that depictions of
stereotypical bias have been the main features in the media content. The most common forms of
these stereotypes in the European and United States media is portraying people who originate
from the Middle East and Africa to be associated with extremism, Islam and terrorism. This
shows that stereotypes are mainly based on negative images that are one-sided about certain
minority groups which lead to polarization and stigmatization. As a result of such stereotypes
societies are made to experience xenophobia, racism, and Islamophobia. Minorities and other
groups that are negatively represented in the media end up been associated with threats and
problems that happen in a society. Research indicates that media news and coverage about
victimized groups tend to emphasize topic that relates to violence, unemployment, crime,
poverty, drugs, fundamentalism and religion (Panis, Paulussen, & Dhoest, 2019).
It is evident that Muslims and Arabs are represented in western arts in a manner that
creates an image of inhumane both in past and current views among the western people. Studies
show that a distorted image that has been built over time about Muslims in the arts and films
industry spreads dishonest ideas about them filled with the desire for sex. For example, some
films such as “The Dictator” which portrays the main character, Aladdin as lascivious and
unkind. It is because of these biases both in the news media and the film industry that the largest
section of the western audience views Muslims as mere nuisances in the world. These
misrepresentations in the media are not stopping soon since more people increasingly gaining
access to such content which widens the gap towards multi-cultural inclusivity (Starck, 2018).
Media content analysis is an approach used in understanding media texts and their
meaning using qualitative or quantitative research methods. This approach was introduced in the
twentieth century to mainly to study propaganda. Qualitative methods will be used in viewing
the media clips and conduct open and unstructured debates and discussions about the effects and
themes in the clips. This research will analyze two separate incidents that happened in different
countries in the west between 2015 and 2017. The two incidents are Chapel Hill Shooting which
occurred in February 2015 in North Carolina State in the United States and the killing of Nabra
Hassanen which happened in June 2017 in Virginia State. In each incident, two news articles will
be selected one from the western media and the other from the Arab media (Starck, 2018).
In conclusion, media representation has existed from the olden days, and it continues to
be used to intensify societal stereotypes and prejudices to the audience. One of the groups that
have been a subject of misrepresentation is the people with Middle Eastern ancestry who are
mainly Arabs and Muslims. This group of people is associated with terrorism, extremism, crime,
and violence. These ideas make people from that region be victimized even when they are not
responsible for incidents that happen. To solve this problem, media houses should hire
individuals who are impartial in when analyzing incidences when they occur or even employ
staff from this group of people. Western countries should encourage these news media houses to
avoid polarization of the society through targeting people from a particular ethnic or religious
group (Panis, Paulussen, & Dhoest, 2019).
Newman, N., Fletcher, R., Kalogeropoulos, A., Levy, D. A. L., & Nielsen, R. K. (2017).
Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2017. Oxford: Reuters Institute. Retrieved
February 26, 2019, from www.digitalnewsreport.org/survey/2017
Panis, K., Paulussen, S., & Dhoest, A. (2019). Managing Super-Diversity on Television:
The Representation of Ethnic Minorities in Flemish Non-Fiction Programmes. Media and
Communication,7(1), 13. doi:10.17645/mac.v7i1.1614
Samaie, M., & Malmir, B. (2017). US news media portrayal of Islam and Muslims: A
corpus-assisted Critical Discourse Analysis. Educational Philosophy and Theory,49(14),
Starck, K. (2018). Perpetuating Prejudice: Media Portrayal of Arabs and Arab
Americans. Media – Migration – Integration. doi:10.14361/9783839410325-007
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