Expert Answer:Remember the Titans film analysis Essay

  

Solved by verified expert:In this essay, you will offer a critical analysis of the film, Remember the Titans.Your essay should be 3-4 pages in length (not including title page, works cited, and statement of originality).2. Use the concepts discussed in chapters 1-7 of the textbook(I have attached a copy of the book) and information to analyze the film and to write your essay. DO NOT give a summary of the film. I have seen the film. This is NOT a film summary; it is a film ANALYSIS.3. Give your essay a title.4. Write an introduction.5. Cite the textbook at least four times. Give page numbers when citing or referencing concepts from the textbook. You may also cite outside research sources, if applicable.6. Describe the verbal and nonverbal cultural patterns in the film and analyze their significance. Support your reasoning with information from the textbook.7. Ensure your analysis addresses these questions:How do the images and/or ideas in the film relate to the theories in the textbook and course materials?How does the film contribute to your knowledge of intercultural communication?Did the film change your understanding of intercultural communication? If so, how?8. Describe how some of the following concepts are exemplified in the film:Identity groupsEthnocentrismStereotypingIndividualism/CollectivismMasculinity/FemininityCultural beliefsUnequal distribution of global resourcesHofstede’s Value Dimensions 9. When analyzing the film, you might consider some of the following questions:Note: You do not have to answer each of these questions in your essay. These are some of the questions that you could address to complete the assignment satisfactorilyAre any stereotypes evident in the film? Explain.Is prejudice evident in the film? Explain.Is racism evident in the film? Explain.How is language used by the characters and what does that language communicate about age, gender, and socio-income levels?How does language reflect the cultural values of the characters?What do you notice about accents, dialects, argot, or slang?What cultural beliefs are depicted in the film?10. Write a summary/concluding remarks.11. Include a works cited page following MLA, APA, or Chicago Manual Style format. Be sure to list all references including your textbook and the film. Outside research sources are optional.12. Include the statement of originality.
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INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION:
A READER, 12e
©2009
Samovar | Porter | McDaniel
496 Pages | Paperbound
0495554219 | 9780495554219
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SEVENTH EDITION
Communication
Between
CULTURES
Larry A. Samovar
San Diego State University, Emeritus
Richard E. Porter
California State University, Emeritus
Edwin R. McDaniel
Aichi Shukutoku University
Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States
Communication Between Cultures,
Seventh Edition
Larry A. Samovar, Richard E. Porter,
Edwin R. McDaniel
Senior Publisher: Lyn Uhl
Executive Editor: Monica Eckman
Assistant Editor: Rebekah Matthews
© 2010, 2007 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein
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written permission of the publisher.
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For product information and technology assistance, contact us at
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 12 11 10 09
Contents
Preface
xi
CHAPTER 1
COMMUNICATION AND
CULTURE: THE CHALLENGE
OF THE FUTURE
1
INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
PRESENT AND FUTURE
2
Globalization
World Trade and International
Business
Technology and Travel
Competition for Natural Resources
International Conflict and Security
Environmental Challenges
World Health Issues
Shifting Populations
Immigration
The Aging U.S. Population
Multicultural Society
DEFINING OUR TERMS
Intercultural Communication
The Dominant Culture
Co-Cultures
COMMUNICATION
The Functions of Communication
Communication Allows You to Gather
Information About Other People
Communication Helps Fulfill Interpersonal
Needs
2
3
4
6
7
8
8
9
9
10
11
12
12
12
13
14
15
15
15
Communication Establishes Personal
Identities
Communication Influences Others
Communication Defined
Principles of Communication
Communication Is a Dynamic Process
Communication Is Symbolic
Communication Is Contextual
Communication Is Self-Reflective
We Learn to Communicate
Communication Has a Consequence
CULTURE
22
Defining Culture
The Basic Functions of Culture
Elements of Culture
History
Religion
Values
Social Organizations
Language
Characteristics of Culture
Culture Is Learned
Culture Is Shared
Culture Is Transmitted from
Generation to Generation
Culture Is Based on Symbols
Culture Is Dynamic
Culture Is an Integrated System
STUDYING INTERCULTURAL
COMMUNICATION
Individual Uniqueness
15
15
16
16
16
16
18
19
19
20
23
24
24
25
25
25
26
26
26
27
36
36
37
38
39
40
40
Contents iii
Stereotyping
Objectivity
Communication is not a Cure-all
41
43
44
PREVIEW OF THE BOOK
45
Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas
46
47
47
CHAPTER 2
THE DEEP STRUCTURE
OF CULTURE: ROOTS
OF REALITY
48
THE DEEP STRUCTURE OF CULTURE
49
Deep Structure Institutions Carry a
Culture’s Most Important Beliefs
Deep Structure Institutions and
their Messages Endure
Deep Structure Institutions and
their Messages are Deeply Felt
Deep Structure Institutions Supply
much of a Person’s Identity
FAMILY
The Importance of Family
Definition of Family
Forms of Family
Nuclear Families
Extended Families
Changing Families in the United States
Globalization and Families
Functions of the Family
Reproduction
Teaching Economic Values
Socialization
Teaching Core Values and Worldview
Identity Development
Communication Training
Communication, Culture, and
Family
Cultural Variants in Family
Interaction
Gender Roles
Changing Gender Roles
Individualism and Collectivism
iv
Contents
50
51
51
52
53
53
54
54
55
55
56
57
59
59
59
59
59
60
60
61
62
62
66
67
Age Grouping
Social Skills
HISTORY
History of the United States
History of Russia
History of China
History of India
History of Mexico
History of Islamic Civilization
Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas
71
73
75
78
80
82
85
88
91
95
96
96
CHAPTER 3
WORLDVIEW: CULTURAL
EXPLANATIONS OF LIFE
AND DEATH
97
WORLDVIEW
97
Worldview and Culture
Expressions of Worldview
The Importance of Worldview
Forms of Worldview
Religion as a Worldview
Secularism as a Worldview
Spirituality as a Worldview
RELIGION
The Enduring Significance of
Religion
Religion and the Study of
Intercultural Communication
Religion and Behavior
The Study of Religion in the
Twenty-First Century
Selecting Worldviews for Study
Religious Similarities
Speculation
Sacred Scriptures
Rituals
Ethics
Safe Haven
Christianity
Core Assumptions
Cultural Manifestations
Notions about Death
98
98
99
100
100
101
102
103
103
104
104
105
106
106
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
112
115
Judaism
Core Assumptions
Cultural Manifestations
Notions about Death
Islam
Origins
Core Assumptions
Sunni and Shiite
Five Pillars of Islam
Jihad
The Koran
Cultural Manifestations
Notions about Death
Hinduism
Origins
Sacred Texts
Core Assumptions
Cultural Manifestations
Notions about Death
Buddhism
Origins
Core Assumptions
Cultural Manifestations
Notions about Death
Confucianism
Confucius the Man
Core Assumptions
The Analects
Cultural Manifestations
Confucianism and Communication
Notions about Death
RELIGION AND WORLDVIEW:
A FINAL THOUGHT
Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas
116
116
118
120
121
122
123
124
125
127
128
129
131
132
133
133
134
136
138
139
139
140
144
145
146
146
147
147
147
148
149
150
150
151
151
CHAPTER 4
CULTURE AND THE
INDIVIDUAL: CULTURAL
IDENTITY
152
THE IMPORTANCE OF IDENTITY
EXPLAINING IDENTITY
153
154
SELECTED SOCIAL IDENTITIES
156
Racial Identity
Ethnic Identity
Gender Identity
National Identity
Regional Identity
Organizational Identity
Personal Identity
Cyber and Fantasy Identity
156
156
158
159
160
160
161
161
ACQUIRING AND DEVELOPING IDENTITIES
ESTABLISHING AND ENACTING
CULTURAL IDENTITY
IDENTITY IN INTERCULTURAL
INTERACTIONS
IDENTITY IN A MULTICULTURAL
SOCIETY
THE DARK SIDE OF IDENTITY
STEREOTYPING
Stereotypes Defined
Learning Stereotypes
Stereotypes and Intercultural
Communication
Avoiding Stereotypes
PREJUDICE
Functions of Prejudice
Ego-Defensive Function
Utilitarian Function
Value-Expressive Function
Knowledge Function
Expressions of Prejudice
Causes of Prejudice
Societal Sources
Maintaining Social Identity
Scapegoating
Avoiding Prejudice
RACISM
Racism Defined
Expressions of Racism
Avoiding Racism
ETHNOCENTRISM
Defining Ethnocentrism
163
164
167
168
169
170
170
170
171
172
173
173
174
174
174
174
174
175
176
176
176
176
177
177
178
178
179
179
Contents v
Characteristics of Ethnocentrism
Levels of Ethnocentrism
Ethnocentrism Is Universal
Ethnocentrism Contributes to Cultural
Identity
Avoiding Ethnocentrism
Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas
180
180
180
180
181
182
183
183
CHAPTER 5
SHAPING INTERPRETATIONS
OF REALITY: CULTURAL
VALUES
184
PERCEPTION
184
What is Perception?
Perception and Culture
185
186
BELIEFS
EXPLORING VALUES
USING CULTURAL PATTERNS
187
188
190
Obstacles in Using Cultural
Patterns
We Are More than Our Culture
Cultural Patterns Are Integrated
Cultural Patterns Are Dynamic
Cultural Patterns Can Be Contradictory
Choosing Cultural Patterns
190
190
191
191
191
192
DOMINANT UNITED STATES CULTURAL
PATTERNS
192
Individualism
Equal Opportunity
Material Acquisition
Science and Technology
Progress and Change
Work and Play
Competitive Nature
193
194
195
195
196
196
197
DIFFERING CULTURAL PATTERNS
HOFSTEDE’S VALUE DIMENSIONS
197
198
Individualism/collectivism
Individualism
Collectivism
Uncertainty Avoidance
198
199
200
201
vi
Contents
High-Uncertainty Avoidance
Low-Uncertainty Avoidance
Power Distance
High-Power Distance
Low-Power Distance
Masculinity/Femininity
Masculinity
Femininity
Long- and Short-term Orientation
THE KLUCKHOHNS AND STRODTBECK’S
VALUE ORIENTATIONS
201
202
203
203
204
205
205
206
207
207
Human Nature Orientation
Evil
Good and Evil
Good
Person/Nature Orientation
Human Beings Subject to Nature
Cooperation with Nature
Controlling Nature
Time Orientation
Past Orientation
Present Orientation
Future Orientation
Activity Orientation
Being Orientation
Being-in-Becoming Orientation
Doing Orientation
208
209
209
210
210
210
210
211
212
212
212
213
213
213
214
214
HALL’S HIGH-CONTEXT AND
LOW-CONTEXT ORIENTATIONS
215
High Context
Low Context
215
217
FACE AND FACEWORK
217
Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas
219
220
220
CHAPTER 6
LANGUAGE AND
CULTURE: THE ESSENTIAL
PARTNERSHIP
221
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FUNCTIONS
OF LANGUAGE
223
Communicative Exchange
223
Language and Identity
Language and Unity
223
224
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
225
What Is Language?
Language Variations
Accent
Dialect
Argot
Slang
Branding
The Symbiosis of Language
and Culture
LANGUAGE AS A REFLECTION
OF CULTURAL VALUES
225
227
227
227
228
228
228
228
230
High and Low Context
High and Low Power Distance
Individualism and Collectivism
230
231
232
LANGUAGE IN INTERCULTURAL
COMMUNICATION INTERACTIONS
233
Interpersonal Interactions
Mindfulness
Speech Rate
Vocabulary
Monitor Nonverbal Feedback
Checking
Interpretation and Translation
Interpretation
Translation
Intercultural Marriage
234
234
235
235
235
235
236
236
236
237
COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
AND LANGUAGE
Language Considerations in
Intercultural Competence
Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas
238
240
240
242
242
CHAPTER 7
NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION:
THE MESSAGES OF ACTION,
SPACE, TIME, AND SILENCE 243
THE IMPORTANCE OF NONVERBAL
COMMUNICATION
244
Judging Internal States
Creating Impressions
Managing Interaction
244
245
245
DEFINING NONVERBAL
COMMUNICATION
245
Intentional and Unintentional
Messages
Verbal and Nonverbal
Communication
STUDYING NONVERBAL
COMMUNICATION
246
246
247
Nonverbal Communication Can
Be Ambiguous
Multiple Factors Can Influence
Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal Communication is
Contextual
NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
AND CULTURE
CLASSIFICATIONS OF NONVERBAL
COMMUNICATION
247
247
248
248
250
Body Behavior
The Influence of Appearance
Judgments of Beauty
The Messages of Skin Color
The Messages of Attire
Body Movement (Kinesics)
Posture
Gestures
Facial Expressions
Facial Expressions and Culture
Some Cultural Examples
Eye Contact and Gaze
Eye Contact and the Dominant Culture
Some Cultural Examples
Touch
Some Cultural Examples
Paralanguage
Vocal Qualities
Vocal Characteristics
Vocal Segregates
Space and Distance
Personal Space
250
250
251
252
253
255
255
257
259
260
260
261
262
262
265
265
267
268
269
269
269
270
Contents vii
Seating
Furniture Arrangement
Some Co-Cultural Examples
Time
Informal Time
Past, Present, and Future
Monochronic (M-time) and Polychronic
(P-time)
Silence
Some Cultural Examples
Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas
271
271
272
273
274
276
277
280
281
283
284
284
CHAPTER 8
CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON
CONTEXT: THE BUSINESS
SETTING
285
CULTURE AND CONTEXT
285
Communication Is Rule Governed
286
Context Helps Specify
Communication Rules
286
Communication Rules are Culturally
Diverse
287
ASSESSING THE CONTEXT
Formality and Informality
Informality
Formality
Assertiveness and Interpersonal
Harmony
Assertiveness
Interpersonal Harmony
Status Relationships
Egalitarian
Hierarchical
INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
IN THE BUSINESS CONTEXT
The International Business Setting
The Domestic Business Context
288
288
288
289
290
290
291
292
292
293
294
294
298
COMMUNICATION IN THE MULTICULTURAL
BUSINESS CONTEXT
299
Business Protocol
Initial Contacts
viii Contents
300
300
Greeting Behavior
Personal Appearance
Gift Giving
Conversational Taboos
301
303
304
306
INTERCULTURAL MANAGEMENT
307
Leadership Styles
United States
Japan
Korea and China
Mexico
Decision-Making Styles
307
307
308
308
309
309
INTERCULTURAL BUSINESS
NEGOTIATIONS
DIFFERING PERCEPTIONS OF
NEGOTIATIONS
The Selection of Negotiators
Business Ethics and Negotiations
Participating in Intercultural
Business Negotiations
Formality and Status
Pace and Patience
Emotional Displays
Direct and Indirect Language
Evidence and “Truth”
Developing Intercultural
Negotiation Skills
311
311
312
313
314
314
315
316
316
317
318
INTERCULTURAL CONFLICT MANAGEMENT 318
Conflict: An American Perspective
Avoidance
Accommodation
Competition
Collaboration
Conflict: An Intercultural Perspective
Managing Intercultural Conflict
Identify the Contentious Issues
Keep an Open Mind
Do Not Rush
Keep the Conflict Centered on Ideas,
Not People
Develop Techniques for Avoiding Conflict
Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas
319
319
320
320
320
321
322
322
322
323
323
323
324
324
325
CHAPTER 9
CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON
CONTEXT: THE EDUCATIONAL
SETTING
326
CHANGING EDUCATIONAL
DYNAMICS
CULTURALLY DIVERSE EDUCATIONAL
SYSTEMS
What and How Cultures Teach
MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION
Challenges of Multicultural
Education
Culture and Learning
Cultural Ways of Knowing
Cultural Learning Preferences
Relational Styles for Learning
Cultural Motivation Styles
328
TEACHER MULTICULTURAL
COMPETENCE
Becoming Multiculturally
Competent
Understanding Self
Understanding Diversity
Classrooms for Multicultural
Education
Classroom as Community
The Differentiated Classroom
Multicultural Communication
Competence
Multicultural Communication
Strategies
Immediacy
Empathy
Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas
CULTURAL INFLUENCES
ON CONTEXT: THE HEALTH
CARE SETTING
357
HEALTH CARE COMMUNICATION IN A
CULTURALLY DIVERSE SOCIETY
Health Care Communication
328
329
336
336
337
338
339
343
344
LANGUAGE DIVERSITY IN MULTICULTURAL
EDUCATION
345
Extent of Diversity
Language and Identity
English Language Learners
CHAPTER 10
345
346
347
347
348
348
349
351
351
352
353
353
354
354
355
356
356
357
358
DIVERSE HEALTH CARE BELIEF
SYSTEMS
359
Supernatural/Magico/Religious
Tradition
Underlying Premises
Causes of Illness
Treatment of Illness
Holistic Tradition
Underlying Premises
Causes
Treatment of Illness
Scientific/Biomedical Tradition
Underlying Premises
Causes of Illness
Treatment of Illness
Cultural Diversity in the
Prevention of Illness
INTERCULTURAL HEALTH CARE
COMPETENCE
360
360
360
363
365
365
365
366
368
368
369
369
370
371
Intercultural Competence
Attributes of Intercultural Competence
Developing Intercultural
Competence
Know Your Own Culture
Gain Knowledge of Co-Cultures
Health Care Communication
Strategies
372
372
373
374
374
376
LANGUAGE AND HEALTH CARE
378
Language Diversity
Conducting Interviews
Employing Interpreters
378
379
380
DEATH AND DYING
Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas
380
381
382
382
Contents ix
CHAPTER 11
VENTURING INTO A NEW
CULTURE: BECOMING
COMPETENT
383
BECOMING A COMPETENT
INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATOR
384
Intercultural Communication
Competence
384
Defining Intercultural Communication
Competence
384
Components of Intercultural Communication
Competence
384
Improving Your Intercultural
Communication Skills
386
Be Aware of Your Culture
387
Examine Your Personal Attitudes
387
Understand Your Communication Style
387
Monitor Yourself
388
Be Empathic
389
Understanding Empathy
389
Roadblocks to Empathy
390
Improving Empathy
390
Practice Effective Listening
391
Direct and Indirect Listening
391
The Value Placed on Listening
392
Nonverbal Communication and Listening 392
Encourage Feedback
392
Develop Communication
Flexibility
394
VENTURING INTO A NEW CULTURE
x
Contents
395
Culture Shock
Defining Culture Shock
Reactions to Culture Shock
The Stages of Culture Shock
(The U-Curve)
The Lessons of Culture Shock
Beyond Culture Shock
Acculturation: Adjusting to a New Culture
Adaptation Strategies
Host Cultures’ Reactions to Immigration
396
397
397
398
399
399
400
402
403
INTERCULTURAL ETHICS
404
What Is Ethics?
Fundamentalism
Cultural Relativism
404
405
405
THE PRACTICE OF ETHICAL INTERCULTURAL
COMMUNICATION
406
Communication Elicits a Response
Respect the Other
Search for Commonalities Between
People and Cultures
Respect Cultural Differences
Accept Responsibility for Your
Behavior
Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas
Notes 412
Index 452
407
407
408
409
409
410
411
411
Preface
If one finger is sore, the whole hand will hurt.
CHINESE PROVERB
Our lives are all different and yet the same.
ANNE FRANK
W
e approached the occasion of a seventh edition with three very different reactions: pleasure, excitement, and caution. Our pleasure was great when we realized that our previous efforts were successful enough to warrant this new edition. It
means that during the last thirty-eight years, our message regarding the importance of
intercultural communication appears to have had merit—and an audience. Our excitement centered on the realization that we were once again going to be able to tinker
with what we had done in six earlier editions. We knew, however, that we needed to be
cautious and prudent when advancing additional perspectives and material. We did not
want to abandon the orientation that contributed to the book’s popularity. We believe
that we have been able to fuse the past, present, and future of intercultural communication into this new edition. We have retained the core of the field, added current
thinking and research, and staked out some new territory.
This book is still about the unique relationship between communication and culture. More specifically, it is about what happens when people from different cultures
come together to share ideas, feelings, and information. Knowing that communication
and culture work in tandem, we have tried to incorporate the basic principles from
both topics throughout this book. Intercultural interaction is a daily occurrence for a
growing number of people, so we have designed this text for individuals whose professional or private life brings them into contact wi …
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