Expert Answer:Romans’ economy, politics, and culture essay


Solved by verified expert:In doing so, you should begin with the formation of the Roman Republic (how it functioned, discuss the famous Twelve Tables law, its judicial system, religion, its military and economic expansion.) Continue your discussion with the rise of Julius Caesar and the establishment of Pax-Romana along with its economical, societal issues (including religions) and also its achievements.Main Points to organize your essay
Political Structure

Law and the Judicial system
Authoritarian government under Caesar
Military Expansion

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Trade and trade items

Social Issues

Status of women


Art and architecture
Network of Roads and their importance
InventionsREQUIRED TEXT:J. Bentley & H. Ziegler, Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past. (Selected material, sixth Edition)and power point.needs work cited, must use foot notes Bibliography required too, IN CHICAGO STYLE

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Roman Empire; A political achievement!
How did the Romans learn about Greek culture?
Rome and Mediterranean unity!
Age of creativity and achievements during the Han and the
Roman empires.

Incorporation of Europe into the intercommunicating zone!

Punic wars (264-146BCE)
Pax-Romana (Roman peace)
Roman empire and the Han dynasty in the year One!
Two major empires, but why we know more about the Roman Empire
than the Han Empire?
Invented by Zhang
Heng in 132CE.
Rome and Mediterranean Unity:
1. Roman Empire; A political achievement!
Not a cultural achievement!
Zeus=Jupiter, Hera=Juno, Athena=Minerva,
Aphrodite=Venus, Poseidon=Neptune
Roman Population; 56.8
million. Covering an area of
1.7 million square miles.
Rome and Mediterranean Unity:
How did the Romans learn about Greek culture?
a. Etruscans
b. Greeks
Greek Colonies
Indo-European Migration between
2,000-1,000 BCE.
Italic People
Etruscan Arts
Dancing women
Etruscan helmet
The horse is a strong
symbol in the Etruscan
The swan comb
Chimera: Etruscan
bronze sculpture
Etruscan plate
Rome and Mediterranean Unity:
2. The economic base of the Roman Empire!
Roman winemaking
Carthaginian Empire
a mosaic of farmers pressing olives
to make olive oil
Colony of Carthage was founded around 800 BCE. And became independent
by 650BCE.
By 264 BCE, some of the Greek colonies had disappeared and Romans
dominated the Italian Peninsula. Carthage managed to conquer and colonize
southern Spain and most of North Africa.
Carthaginian Empire
The economic base Carthage
Economy: Agriculture and trade:
Silver, lead, tin, bronze, purple dye, textile; cotton, linen, wool, pottery,
incense, tin glazed pottery, ivory, glass, mirror, and all different types of
Phoenician shipbuilders are also credited with developing
bireme and trireme galleys in which the oars were arranged
in two or three banks.
Sea snails (murex) were
the sources of purple dye.
12,000 snails yields close
to 1.4g of pure dye.
Carthage Harbor
Carthage Harbor with docking station
for 300-350 warships.
The Punic Wars:
Romans vs. Phoenicians (Carthaginians)
The First Punic War: 264-241 BCE;
The First Punic War broke out in 264 BCE;
it was concentrated entirely on the
island of Sicily.
The Second Punic War: 218-202 BCE;
In 221 BC, a young man, only
twenty-five years old, assumed command over Carthaginian Spain: Hannibal.
37 war elephants
The Third Punic War: 149-146 BCE;
Conquest of Carthage.
17 years of fire, starvation, and slavery.
City life
Roman Empire and the trade route,
Regional and Long-distance trade.
Rural life
Grains from Latifundia/commercial agriculture, fruits, vegetables, olive oil, wine, spices, woolen
and cotton textile, jewelry, precious stones, horses, pottery, glasses, mirrors, metalwork, and etc.
Rome and Mediterranean Unity :
Roman Empire;
An empire of law
Why is it that the Roman law being regarded as a phenomenon in World History?
“The Twelve Tablets(451-450 BCE); This is the
earliest attempt by the Romans to create a
CODE OF LAW; it is also the earliest
(surviving) piece of literature coming from
the Romans. In the midst of a constant
struggle for legal and social protection and
civil rights between the privileged class
(patricians) and the common people (plebeians)
a commission of ten men was appointed (455
BCE) to draw up a code of law.”
Procedure: for courts and trials
Trials, continued.
Rights of fathers (paterfamilias) over the family
Legal guardianship and inheritance laws
Acquisition and possession
Land rights
Torts and delictis (Laws of injury)
Public law
Sacred law
Supplement I
Supplement II
Comparison of Criminal Justice Systems
in Ancient Rome and the modern United States
Ancient Rome
Modern US
Judge/ presider;
Had advise of three legal
experts to consult.
Appointed or elected
Has at least some legal expertise
and extensive law library.
32 to 75 jurors, depending
on type of case.
Chosen from a list of men of
senatorial class.
Verdict decided by majority
Usually 12 jurors
Selected from a panel of citizens
Individually examined, accepted,
or rejected by prosecution and
Verdict usually must be
Comparison of Criminal Justice Systems
in Ancient Rome and the modern United States
Ancient Rome
Private citizen
Modern US
Public official elected or
Defense attorney;
protector, sponsor, or
Professional lawyer
Innocent until proven
Innocent until proven
Kept under house arrest or
imprisoned until trial,
Usually in private home.
Imprisoned or free on bail
or own word until trial.
Rome and Mediterranean Unity:
Roman’s political organization!
Early Roman government, prior to 509 BCE.
1. King;
Absolute power, chief magistrate, chief priest, and commander of
2. Assembly;
All the male citizen of military age. It was a ratifying body with
no right to initiate legislation or recommend changes of policy.
However, it could veto any proposal for a change in the law which
the king might have made.
3. Senate (Council of elders);
Heads of various clans. After the death of the leader the power
would be transferred to Senate until the people had confirmed the
succession of a new king. Over all, the Senate would examine
royal proposals which had been ratified by the assembly and to veto
them, if they violated the traditional rights and customs.
Rome and Mediterranean Unity:
3. Roman’s political organization!
b. Later Roman government, post 509BCE.
The era of Republic
Consuls were elected to
serve only one year, and
each Consul could veto
the other’s action. They
were carried on the daily
business of the
government and of the
The Senate controlled
the Roman treasury and
foreign policy.
Senators were chosen
for life.
Laws proposed by the
senate could be approved
or disapproved by
citizen assemblies.
4. Age of creativity and achievements in China:
Chinese Governmental bureaucracy:
Civil service examination:
Cultivated Talent (County exam)=BA
Elevated Man (Provincial exam)=MA
Presented Scholar (Metropolitan exam)=Ph.D
China’s most famous
historian, Sima Qian (
145-87 B.CE?), whose Shiji
(Historical Records)
provides a detailed
chronicle from the time of
a legendary Xia emperor to
that of the Han emperor Wu
Di .
Candidates who had taken the civil service
examinations would crowd around the wall
where the results were posted.
4. Age of creativity and achievements in China:
Silk making
4. Age of creativity and achievements:
Paper making and printing devices
Deep drilling
Field of medicine; Acupuncture
Glazed pottery
Tsai-Lun invented paper in 104 CE.
Printing device
D. Age of creativity and achievements:
Deep drilling
Field of medicine; Acupuncture
Glazed pottery
Chinese astronomer learned how to predict eclipses and how
to calculate the length of the year very accurately.
Drilling for salt in 400 CE- to depths of
3000 feet
Deep drilling for natural gas, around 100BCE
Trade and Silk Roads
(Caravan Inns)
Roman Empire and the trade route
5.Incorporation of Europe into the intercommunicating zone!
Pax-Romana (Roman peace)
Beginning with the accession of Augustus in 27 BCE, this era in Roman history lasted until
180 CE, the death of Marcus Aurelius.
Roman Aqueduct
Open class discussion question
In 476 CE., the Roman Empire, which had lasted for over five
centuries, collapsed. Using your knowledge of world history,
prepare a response in which you:
Identify three significant causes that led to the fall of the Roman
a) select two of the causes you have identified; and
b) explain why those causes were decisive factors in bringing about
the collapse of the Roman Empire.
The question calls for identifying three factors that led to the collapse of Rome. Before attempting to
answer the question, consider factors that would lead to the collapse of any empire (war, famine,
economics, climatic changes, civil unrest, and so forth). Ask yourself why after five centuries Rome
would fall. Note that this information was stated in the question. Decide how many of the general factors
you listed might apply to the fall of Rome. As you think about the question, you might recall that
barbarians were responsible for sacking Rome, or that the army had gone through far-reaching changes, or
that Christianity was a factor.
Open class discussion question
1) Ineffective political system
2) Economic Decline
3) Invasion
2) Economic Decline:
a) Roman empire grew in territory and population beyond the limits of what its
economic resources could support.
II. War with Persians
III. Higher taxation and the reduction of value of coins in circulation.
b) Widening gap between the rich and the poor
c) Slavery
3) Invasion of the Germanic people
Imperial decline and barbarian invasions during the 3rd.
and 4th.centuries CE.
Invasions of the Germanic people
Germanic tribes:
Saxon, Jutes, Angles, Thuringians, Alamanni, Suebi, Franks, Daner (Denish), Suiones
(Swedes), Burgandians, Visigoths, Thervings, Ostrogoths, Rugians, Vandals, Heruli

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