Expert Answer:Semitic Analysis of Yvonnes Perfume

  

Solved by verified expert:This projects should be approximately 1250-1500 words, I can send you 2 pages essay which I write with this project before. You can extend that and write some concepts of semiotics for this. Also, you need to the poster of this perfume, I will send the simple poster to you and you need to add something on that as well.1) Introduction (@ 300 words): Provide a detailed textual description and brief assessment of the object that could be used to explain it to anyone. It should be meaningful to someone who is unfamiliar with it, or someone who is visually impaired, or someone who is not from your community or have your cultural background. A good Introduction will set the tone for the sections that follow. 2) Justification (@ 300 words): Provide a solid, thorough discussion of and justification for the semiotic concepts that inform your approach to creating an advertisement for this object. Consider the following questions (these are suggestive and not meant to be proscriptive): *What rhetorical devices are you using to create your advertisement, and why? How are you using them? To what end? *Which master tropes are you using to structure your advertisement, and how are you using them? *How are you engaging with concepts such as denotation and connotation? Literal and figurative language? Realism? Why and how are these important for your advertisement? 3) Audience (@ 300 words): Provide a detailed description of the audience or audiences for which the advertisement is intended and your what you are hoping your advertisement communicates to them. You might also consider: to what degree does your advertisement leave open possibilities of interpretation that you cannot account for or control for? 4) The Final Advertisement: This section is entirely up to you, but it should incorporate visual and textual information about your object and any other elements you believe will demonstrate the semiotic concepts you have chosen to put your advertisement together. 5) Reflection (@ 300 words): Provide a thoughtful, reflective statement about what you have learned from this course about semiotics, what has been the most useful and why, and how this knowledge has enabled you to put this advertisement together. How, for example, did creating this advertisement take you back to our very first discussions of the problems of representation?
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• How are visual media (e.g. photography, film, video) useful for understanding
the distinction between denotation and connotation
• What is the distinction between denotation and connotation?
• What do we mean when we say that certain uses of figurative language are
the basis of “master tropes”?
• What is a trope, and how is it a foundational concept for semiotics?
Today’s lecture
• For Magritte, the painting was a
vehicle for thinking about the
distinction between the literal and the
representational
• For semioticians, the painting is also a
vehicle for thinking about how the
signifier and signified may not be two
Magritte: “If I had written
on my picture ‘This is a
pipe,’’ I’d have been lying!”
Getting past “the literal” to “the figurative”
Tropes become useful in human communication because of their
seemingly fixed reliability and transparency
Types of tropes – metaphor, metonym, synecdoche, and irony –
form the basis of the four master tropes
Tropes rely on figurative uses of language (as opposed to literal
uses of language) as the means through which conventions of
representation are produced.
Conventions of representation that have been repeated over time and
have thus solidified into recognizable forms are called tropes.
How cultures rely on master tropes
“Metaphors initially seem to disregard ‘literal’ or denotative resemblance but
some kind of resemblance or association must become apparent if the metaphor
is to make any sense at all to its interpreters…[M]ore interpretive effort is
required in making sense of metaphors than of more obvious signs” (Chandler,
*Orientational: metaphors that rely on spatial organization (e.g. up-down, inout, front-back, on-off, near-far, deep-shallow, central-peripheral)
*Ontological (from the Greek meaning “what something is”): metaphors that
rely on associations with things, conditions, states of being (e.g “she’s a gem,”
“he’s a bitter person, “their style is arresting”)
*Structural: metaphors that are embedded in a system, which itself is a
metaphor (e.g. argument is war, time is a commodity)
From George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, Metaphors We Live By (1980)
How metaphors work
“evolution [of time]” “natural” as authentic form
“growth [of knowledge]” “progress [toward
something]”
Trope #1: Tree as metaphor:
In Peircean language, something “indexical” is closely related to the concept of metonymy
in that something (e.g. a photograph) indexes a larger reality
A metonym is based on an “imputed relationship being that of contiguity” (Wilden, quoted
in Chandler, 156, Chandler’s emphasis)
“Plastic” as metonym for “credit card” (substance for form it takes)
“9/11” as a metonym for “terrorist attack” (date for historical event)
“Sacramento” as metonym for “the state government” (place for institution)
A metonym is a rhetorical device that conveys a relationship based on an substitution or a
connection between a part or aspect of a thing for the whole thing:
How metonyms work
Trope #2: Blue liquid as menstrual
metonym
For some, synecdoche and metonym are closely aligned as to be interchangeable;
some use synecdoche for to describe physical or spatial properties, whereas some
use metonym to describe causal relationships
In a crime drama, a “twitching eye” as a synecdoche for “criminal person”
Golden Gate Bridge is a synecdoche for “San Francisco” or “Bay Area”
In the phrase “All hands on deck,” hands are a synecdoche for “sailors” or
“people who work here”
A synecdoche (sin-eck-dough-key) is a rhetorical device in which a word or concept
or figure is used to stand in for the whole
How synecdoche work
Trope #3: Lips as racial synecdoche
•“While typically an ironic statement signifies the opposite of its
•Irony is the only master trope where knowing the intention
(sometimes called a modality) through which it is communicated
enables easier translation and interpretation
•Sarcasm is the most familiar form of irony; but the disjunction
between what is said and what is meant is not necessarily sarcastic
•Irony comes from the disjunction between the signifier what is
signified: what is represented (literally) is not what is intended
(figuratively)
How irony works
•“Nice shirt”
•“The weather is so
warm today”
“How’s your head?” “I’ve never had any
complaints”
From RuPaul’s Drag Race (2016)
“I do wish we could chat longer, but I’m
having an old friend for dinner.”
From The Silence of the Lambs (1990)
• The double entendre (French for “doubleheard” or “double-take”)
Trope #4: Linguistic irony
Trope #4: Ironic Modalities
Trope #4: Photographic irony (Weegee, 1940s)
• Structuralists believe that some master tropes can be tied or aligned with
particular signs (and system systems) in a given community of speakers,
therefore revealing something about the ideological character of that
• Like signs themselves, tropes rely on the illusion of transparency and
“common sense” in order for them to disguise their power
• For semioticians, master tropes illuminate structural patterns that, once traced,
can reveal how signs (and sign systems) construct (rather than merely reflect)
meaning between one or more people
use of a particular sign in a given context determines a shared or collective
meaning
Master tropes as components of
• Structuralists challenge the structuralism
idea of “literal” signs to show how the recurring
Advertisement
for Pall Mall
brand cigarettes
(1969)
• “Denotation is what is photographed, connotation is how it is photographed” (Fiske,
quoted in Chandler, 163; emphasis in original)
• Fiske’s observation is useful but it presumes that what something is can be
distinguished from how that thing is presented; still, most semioticians argue that
nothing that uses any system of signification can ever be purely denotative
• To believe in the denotative or the literal as unmediated or connotation-free is to
believe that “realism” or “authenticity” can be unmediated or connotation-free;
Denotation is often defined as the obvious, literal, common-sense, “face-value”
meaning of a sign; connotation is often defined as the suggestive, figurative,
“deeper” meaning of a sign
We have seen denotation and connotation in other forms before: in discussions of
literal and figurative language, especially in irony (the difference between what is
represented and what is intended) and in the double-entendre (with its sexual
connotation)
Understanding denotation and connotation
• https://www.dailymotion.com/video/xaifd0
• “Ain’t There Anyone Here for Love?” from Gentleman Prefer Blondes (1953)
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVQ0JFzXMgY
• “No Dames” from Hail Caesar! (2016)
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GB2yiIoEtXw
• “Good Morning” from Singing in the Rain (1952)
Visual media (e.g. photography, film, video) are sometimes useful for
understanding the distinction between denotation and connotation
Three examples:
Visualizing denotation and connotation
ALSO:
*The prompt for your second writing assignment to be distributed/posted to TritonEd
later this week
*What does it mean if something is “codified”? What are some examples?
We will finish up Chapter 4 and begin Chapter 5
*What are ”codes” in the context of semiotics?
(from the beginning of chapter to the end of “Digital and Analog Codes”)
For Thursday, February 21: read Chandler, 177-185
For Thursday
*Final projects will be due on March 19 (two weeks from today) at 2:30pm. No projects
will be accepted after 2:30pm.
*Proposals for your final project will be due on March 5 (a week from today) @ 12pm.
*The prompt for your final project – which incorporates your second writing assignment
in the form of a proposal – has been posted to TritonEd.
*TAS are nearly finished grading midterm exams and will return them at the end of
lecture on Thursday. These grades will be on physical exams and will not be posted to
TritonEd.
Housekeeping for Week Eight
• What categorical distinctions does Chandler draw between interpretive codes,
social codes, and representational codes?
• How does Chandler use the terms digital and analog, and how are they useful
for talking about codes?
• How are codes fundamental to structuralism?
• What are codes and what do they mean in the context of semiotics? How do
codes take us back to our first weeks of the course?
Today’s lecture
• For Magritte, the painting was a
vehicle for thinking about the
distinction between the literal and the
representational
• For semioticians, the painting is also a
vehicle for thinking about how the
signifier and signified may not be two
Magritte: “If I had written
on my picture ‘This is a
pipe,’’ I’d have been lying!”
Getting past “the literal” to “the figurative”
Tropes become useful in human communication because of their
seemingly fixed reliability and transparency
Types of tropes – metaphor, metonym, synecdoche, and irony –
form the basis of the four master tropes
Tropes rely on figurative uses of language (as opposed to literal
uses of language) as the means through which conventions of
representation are produced.
Conventions of representation that have been repeated over time and
have thus solidified into recognizable forms are called tropes.
How cultures rely on master tropes
Advertisement
for Pall Mall
brand cigarettes
(1969)
• “Denotation is what is photographed, connotation is how it is photographed” (Fiske,
quoted in Chandler, 163; emphasis in original)
• Fiske’s observation is useful but it presumes that what something is can be
distinguished from how that thing is presented; still, most semioticians argue that
nothing that uses any system of signification can ever be purely denotative
Denotation is often defined as the obvious, literal, common-sense, “face-value”
meaning of a sign; connotation is often defined as the suggestive, figurative,
“deeper” meaning of a sign
We have seen denotation and connotation in other forms before: in discussions of
literal and figurative language, especially in irony (the difference between what is
represented and what is intended) and in the double-entendre (with its sexual
connotation)
Understanding denotation and connotation
•Understanding master tropes and denotation/connotation disrupts
the idea that signs can ever be literal, or that there is a “real” that
stands apart from systems of signification
•To believe in the denotative or the literal as unmediated or
connotation-free is to believe that “realism” or “authenticity” can be
unmediated or connotation-free
•What could be more rhetorical than to “keep it real”?– that is, to use
the trope of “the real” or “the authentic” that appears to be
transparent but is in fact a linguistic construction?
Tropes, connotations, and “the real”
US family with a year’s worth of food, 1949
Roland Barthes: connotative meanings
produce myths, which work (invisibly) to
produce ideology
• Codes are structures of interpretation that expose, identify, and make visible
all of the fundamental units that constitute systems of signification
• Recently we have examined some rhetorical devices (denotation and
connotation) as they are connected to mythology as well as ideology
• We have looked at signs within systems of signification (relational) and
models (dyadic and triadic) and also as the stepping stones of rhetorical
devices (literal v figurative language, master tropes)
• We have moved in our course from talking about the sign as the fundamental
unit within semiotics
Codes
• Not literally referencing digital or
analog signs but, rather, figuratively
treating “digital” and “analog” within
systems of signification and
interpretation
• Digital: binary: precise: literally 1 or
0: denotative
• Analog: relational: suggestive;
figuratively “the time”: connotative
“Digital” vs “analog” signs
“To regard ‘de-coding’ as a programmatic process would be reductive –
underestimating the cognitively active role of individual interpreters. Reading
any kind of text or message involves identifying appropriate frames of
reference. Meaning is not ‘contained’ within texts: they need to be
supplemented in order to be understood. Making sense of them goes beyond
their explicit content….We read meaning into texts, drawing upon our existing
knowledge and experience of signs, referents, and codes in order to make
explicit what is only implicit” (Chandler, 178, emphasis in original).
Chandler on Codes
• Representational codes: the tracing or identifying of particular semiotic elements through
the aesthetic or cultural conventions of the medium or genre or : a “realistic” novel or a
“personal” song; an action movie or a “rom-com”;
• Social codes; the tracing or identifying of particular semiotic elements through the social
or behavioral conventions of a given culture or linguistic community, such as facial or
bodily gestures, or else rituals or habits/habitual behaviors
• Interpretive codes: the tracing or identifying of particular semiotic elements through a
critical and often theoretical conventions of a political or ideological way of seeing the
world, such as a feminist interpretation of a text (For Chandler, interpretive codes are
primarily visual or based on visual perception)
Chandler’s taxonomy of codes
Queen Elizabeth II
and Prince Philip
(photograph by
Cecil Beaton
(British), 1947)
Brian Ridley
and Lyle Heeter
(Robert Mapplethorpe
(US), 1979)
*Proposals for your final project will be due on March 5 (next Tuesday) @ 12pm.
*Final projects will be due on Tuesday, March 19 at 2:30pm. No projects will be accepted
after 2:30pm.
*TAS have finished grading midterm exams. I will end my lecture earlier than usual so that
we can discuss the final project AND so that we can distribute midterm exams
ALSO…
• What categorical distinctions does Chandler draw between interpretive codes, social codes,
and representational codes?
• What distinctions does Stuart Hall offer between dominant, oppositional, and negotiated
“readings” of texts?
• How is our understanding of codes shaped by objective social forces as well as our own
subjective practices?
Today’s lecture
• Semioticians identify codes by being aware that they are the forms through
which we communicate AND that we are constituted by them
• Codes are structures of interpretation that expose, identify, and make visible
all of the fundamental units that constitute systems of signification
• We have looked at signs within systems of signification (relational) and
models (dyadic and triadic) and also as the stepping stones of rhetorical
devices (literal v figurative language, master tropes). Recently we have
examined some rhetorical devices (denotation and connotation) as they are
connected to mythology as well as ideology
• We have moved in our course from talking about the sign as the fundamental
unit within semiotics
Codes
•“Analogical signs (such as
visual images, gestures,
•Not literally referencing digital
or analog signs but, rather,
figuratively treating “digital”
and “analog” within systems of
signification and interpretation
•Digital: binary: precise:
literally 1 or 0: denotative
•Analog: relational: suggestive;
figuratively “the time”:
connotative
“Digital” vs “analog” signs
• Representational codes: the tracing or identifying of particular semiotic elements through
the aesthetic or cultural conventions of the medium or genre or : a “realistic” novel or a
“personal” song; an action movie or a “rom-com”;
• Social codes; the tracing or identifying of particular semiotic elements through the social
or behavioral conventions of a given culture or linguistic community, such as facial or
bodily gestures, or else rituals or habits/habitual behaviors
• Interpretive codes: the tracing or identifying of particular semiotic elements through the
critical (often theoretical) conventions of a political or ideological way of seeing the
world, such as a feminist interpretation of a text
Chandler’s typology (or taxonomy) of codes
• “Our sense of self is a social and relational construction” (Chandler, 201)
• To say that social codes are naturalized does not make them natural but instead treats them as
arbitrary forms that have become “natural” over time
• “We communicate our social identities through the work we do, the way we talk, the clothes
we wear, our hairstyles, our eating habits, our domestic environments and possessions, our
use of leisure time, our modes of traveling and so on…The conventions are not static but
change over time, though some features are remarkably long-lived, such as the arbitrary and
symbolic direction of buttoning (left over right for males, right over left for females”
(Chandler, 196, emphasis mine)
• Examining social codes, or social coding, takes the position that we can identify, trace, and
examine those signs that appear to be “natural” as socially constructed
Social codes
Queen Elizabeth II
and Prince Philip
(photograph by
Cecil Beaton
(British), 1947)
Brian Ridley
and Lyle Heeter
(Robert Mapplethorpe
(US), 1979)
• Negotiated reading of a text: exposes the role of the reader as tied to, or supporting, a
dominant meaning of a text while also leaving room for resistance and/or contradiction
• Oppositional (or “counter-hegemonic”) reading of a text: exposes the role of the reader as
challenging and even subverting the “dominant” meaning of a text
• Dominant (or “hegemonic”) reading of a text: exposes the role of the reader as tied to, or
supporting, something close to the “obvious” or literal meaning of a text
• We illuminate codes by being aware that we are constituted through them AND
that we have greater control over their meaning than we might assume
• According to Stuart Hall, there are at least three different approaches to
“reading” a text that shows how we are (or can be) involved in the process of
making meaning:
Stuart Hall on interpretive codes
“To regard ‘de-coding’ as a programmatic process would be reductive –
underestimating the cognitively active role of individual interpreters. Reading
any kind of text or message involves identifying appropriate frames of
reference. Meaning is not ‘contained’ within texts: they need to be
supplemented in order to be understood. Making sense of them goes beyond
their explicit content….We read meaning into texts, drawing upon our existing
knowledge and experience of signs, referents, and codes in order to make
Like constructions of meaning through sign systems (Saussure, Whorf), codes
are the “semiotic field” through which we experience reality AND through
which the world is constituted
Codes are not produced by us; they are the frameworks through which we see
the world AND in which we are already embedded
Chandler on Codes
* Your final project will be due on Tuesday, May 19, two weeks from Tuesday, by or
before 2:30pm
*Your initial proposal for your final project will be due on Tuesday by or before 12pm.
ALSO:
(from the beginning of Chapter 6 to the end of “Context” section)
For Tuesday, May 5: read Chandler, 223-242
For next week

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