Expert Answer:Sentence Outline for research paper

  

Solved by verified expert:I would prefer to use the same tutor for this outline, my draft and my final so please keep that in mind when agreeing to do this assignment.PLAGIARISM WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED!Please write mostly in your own words. I think I have included all supporting documents that would be needed, please let me know if you need anything else.The essay topic is why dictator style leadership is better than laissez- faire style leadership.Here is the assignment and instructions and supporting documents:
eng102___lesson_10.pdf

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Lesson 10
Organizing and Integrating
Your Sources
Introduction: Connecting Your Learning
At this point in the process, you have a lot of information– book sources, articles from the library, and
perhaps even some field research. You might be wondering how to move from your proposal to your
paper. This lesson will walk you through the process of organizing your resources and preparing for a
draft.
It is recommended that you take some time before beginning this lesson to review your proposal and
instructor feedback. Based on your research, has anything changed regarding your thesis or your
research questions? If so, take some time to revise them as a clear focus and a clear research question
will be essential for taking the next steps.
Readings, Resources, and Assignments
Required Readings
1. “Decide When to Quote, Paraphrase, or Summarize”
2. “Understand when Citations are Necessary”


1. How to Work with Information from Sources
Multimedia
Resources
2. MLA Style Review

3. Sentence Outline Tutorial
4. Research & Writing Tips: How to Organize Research Notes
1. Sentence Outline
Required
Assignments
See the Assessing Your Learning section for more information on each
assignment.
ENG101&102 Research Guide: A one-stop shop for all of your English related
research needs.
Top 20 Writing Errors Made by College Students: Includes detailed diagrams,
descriptions, and exercises to help master common writing mistakes.
Check Prior Knowledge
Read each of the following statements and decide if each is true or false.
1. Quoting a lot is important in undergraduate work since you’re not an expert on the subject.
True
False
2. Paraphrases and summaries do not need to be cited in the text because you’re putting an
author’s ideas in your own words.
True
False
3. MLA style does not use footnotes to cite sources
True
False
Focusing Your Learning
Lesson Objectives
By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:
1. Organize your research information to prepare for writing your draft.
2. Analyze when to quote, paraphrase, or summarize your sources.
3. Utilize MLA citation style to avoid plagiarism.
4. Outline your research paper using sentences.
This lesson maps to the following course competencies:
Find, evaluate, select, and synthesize both online and print sources that examine a topic from
multiple perspectives.
Integrate sources through summarizing, paraphrasing, and quotation from sources to develop and
support one’s own ideas.
Generate, format, and edit writing using appropriate technologies.
Instruction
From a Research Question to a Thesis
Until this point, you have been working from a research question. Since your research is done, you
should now have some answers. It is now time to work your research question into a statement with
supporting details:
Example
R e s e a rc h Q u e s t i o n
n: What is the cause of recent declines in
Arizona’s fish population?
T h e s i ss: The Department of Natural Resources should determine
whether increasing use of the lakes by recreational vehicles has
caused the recent decline in fish populations in Arizona’s lakes.
P ra c t i c e : You can work through the process of
moving from a question to a statement by
following these steps: Develop and Refine Your
Thesis Statement.
Getting Organized
The next step is to work on organizing your sources to support your thesis statement. Consider what are
you trying to answer and how you will support it. Using a pre-drafting technique like a mind map or a free
write is recommended if you’re feeling stuck. Remember that your sources are your support… your voice
should be the driving force of the paper, with your research acting like your back-up vocalists.
It can be helpful to write out your research question and thesis on a blank sheet of paper and then think
about the sources you found while researching. You might cluster supporting ideas around the thesis and
counterpoints further away from your thesis. Once your main ideas are on paper, think about your
resources and begin to list which of them can serve as a support for each of your ideas. This process is
typically called mapping, and you can try your hand at it using this exercise: Mapping Your Argument.
There are many other methods of organization. If you took good notes throughout your research
process, organizing them by theme can be an excellent way to see how your sources relate to your
paper’s goals. Other students will color code their notes to their main ideas, using highlighters or some
other visually catching method. Still other researchers will physically lay out their sources in the order in
which they’ll be used to support the areas of their paper. Watch the following video on how to read, take
notes on, and understand journal articles below.
How to Read, Take Notes On and Understand Journal Articl…
Knowing what to use and when
Once you have your sources lined up, it’s a good time to think about how you’ll employ them. As the
reading “Decide When to Quote, Paraphrase, or Summarize”  explained, quotes should be used
sparingly. Remember that every time you use a direct quote, you pull your reader out of your own tone of
voice. If you quote too much, or rely on lengthy quotes, it will be difficult to get your reader back.
Remember, you are the author… your voice should be primary with the sources serving as your back up.
As you review your sources, mark or highlight notable passages. Think about whether you can
paraphrase a source instead of directly quoting. If you are working from interviews, direct quotes may be
the best option. You are allowed to alter quotations. If you add words, either for clarity or to paraphrase
a piece of a longer quote, show the changes by using brackets:
Speaking about the rise of the contemporary slasher film, John Smith
states: “some individuals [who complain about the violence in these
films] are being too hasty and miss the film’s aesthetic aspects”(78).
If you remove a piece of a quote, indicate that with an ellipses…
Speaking about the rise of the contemporary slasher film, John Smith
states: “some individuals… are being too hasty and miss the film’s
aesthetic aspects” (78).
Thinking about what evidence you’ll use and how you’ll use it is helpful as you can take an inventory and
fill in any research gaps that might be remaining before the full draft of the paper is due.
MLA Refresher
As you begin to think about how you’ll use sources, it’s critical that you also document the source
information you will need to cite in your paper. In this class, and in most of your English classes, you will
use MLA (Modern Language Association) format. Your sources must be properly cited in the text of your
research paper as well as at the end of your research paper in the form of a Works Cited page . When
taking notes, write down key information such as author, title, date of publication, Web site (if you found
the source on the Internet), year of publication, and publisher.
It is essential to remember that paraphrases and summaries also need to be cited in the text, just like
quotations!
To review MLA style, please read the following presentation: MLA 2009 Formatting and Style Guide.

Outlining
Now that you have your sources in order and have some idea of how you will use (and cite!) them, it’s
time to start preparing for the outline assignment. As you approach the outline, keep in mind that the
research paper must be 8-10 double-spaced pages, not counting the title page or Works Cited page. Your
outline will be roughly half that length, but the more detailed you are, the better the feedback you’ll have
going into your full draft. You can view the full paper guidelines here: Research Paper Guidelines. 
In Lesson 11, you will compose a draft of your essay for a peer review. Your draft will be a true peer
review, meaning you will be graded on evidence of review and your reflection on revision. T h i s o u t l i n e
w i l l b e y o u r i n s t r u c t o r ‘s c h a n c e t o m a ke s u re y o u a re o n t h e r i g h t p a t h i n t e r m s o f ov e ra l l
o rg a n i z a t i o n , u s e o f s o u rc e s , a n d o rg a n i z a t i o n o f y o u r m a i n i d e a s a ro u n d y o u r re s e a rc h
q u e s t i o n a n d t h e s i s . Thus, your outline should be more detailed than the type of outline you may have
used for pre-drafting purposes. For this assignment, you will compose a sentence outline. The following
tutorial will walk you through the process, so be sure to complete it before beginning your sentence
outline:
ENG102 – Sentence Outlines
Two Types of Outlines
Topic Outline
-Organized list of subjects and general topics the essay will
cover
Sentence Outline
-Uses complete sentences to form the basis of your
argument
For this tutorial we will focus on the Sentence Outline. You will soon be able to create a sentence outline of your own.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
You can also view a sample outline to see how the outline leads to the draft by selecting the following
link: Sample formal Outline. 
Preparing for the draft
Once your outline is submitted, begin to work on the draft. While drafting is covered in Lesson 11, you
might want to refer to the Research Paper Guidelines  to think ahead.
Assessing Your Learning
G ra d e d A s s i g n m e n t s
Review the lesson several times before proceeding to the assessments below.
I m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n : Before you begin your assignments, please review and follow the procedures
below in the completion of ALL writing assignments.
Lesson 10 Assignment
Sentence Outline
For this assignment write a clearly formatted sentence outline following the guidelines in the Sentence
Outline Tutorial.
Remember to use complete sentences. This outline will serve as a precursor to a complete draft.
Remember to provide a title for your intended paper and cite any sources you use according to
MLA style. Check out the “Citation Help” page in the ENG101&102 Research Guide to review
correctly formatted sample citations and to learn about tools that will generate citations for you!
The length of this assignment will vary, but most outlines will range between 4-5 pages. It is OK to
single-space your outline.
For a self-checklist to help revise your outline, visit Create and Review Your Outline.
Your outline can earn up to 1 0 0 p o i n t s and will be assessed on the following criteria:
Criteria
Max
Points
C o n t e n t : Outline uses complete sentences to
provide a holistic view of the intended research
project as a precursor to a draft.
60
S o u rc e s : Outline shows evidence of careful
selection and planned usage of sources
throughout the paper. Sources are cited in MLA
style.
30
G ra m m a r / M e c h a n i c s : Rules of grammar,
mechanics, and proper spelling are followed.
10
To t a l p o i n t s :
Submission Instructions
100

In order to receive credit for your work, you must submit this assignment in two ways:
a. Submit it to Turnitin.com (follow the directions provided in the course announcements for specific
account set-up information).
b. To submit the assignment for grading, you will attach your file within the assignment submission
window at the following link: S e n t e n c e O u t l i n ee.
If you need help attaching your file to the submission window, refer to Attaching Files to Assignments in
RioLearn.
Summarizing Your Learning
You are almost there! Your paper is outlined and in the next lesson, you will complete a draft of your
paper and submit it for external review. Depending on your course calendar (8-week or 14 week), you
may not have your instructor’s feedback on the outline prior to crafting your draft. If this is the case, you
should still consider both sets of feedback, as both are important. Your instructor will comment on the
organization of your outline, the plan for supporting your ideas, and the planned use of source. Your
peer reviewer will comment on similar issues with your draft. Taken together, you will be able to plot out
a successful revision for your portfolio.
Have You Met The Objectives For This Lesson?
Copyright © 2019 Rio Salado College. All Rights Reserved.
Copyright © 2019 Rio Salado College. All Rights Reserved.
Formal Sentence Outline
Overview
The Formal Sentence Outline uses the specified standard outline format
indicated below. Beginning with the thesis statement, you will show the major
divisions and subdivisions of your research paper, making every entry a
grammatically-complete, declarative
sentence.
The Formal Sentence Outline predicts the structure of your essay before you
write it, showing the paper’s probable major divisions and subdivisions in the
form of topic sentences for each body paragraph after the thesis statement.
Except for the topic sentences, the outline presents the support for each main
idea. For a researched topic, the content under each division shows cited quotes
and paraphrases.
The Assignment
Following all of the formatting guidelines and rules below, write a formal sentence
outline which indicates the structure and development of your research paper,
showing its divisions and subdivisions that match the thesis statement. Make
every entry of the outline a grammatically-complete sentence. Remember that
your paper will be 10-12 pages once you add the introduction and conclusion,
which are not represented here.
Note: Do not write an outline whose entries are single words, short
phrases, sentence fragments, or questions. Every entry must be a
complete, declarative sentence of the sort which might actually appear in
your research paper. All support must be cited.
Outline Format
Place the essay’s thesis statement at the top of the outline. Remember that the
rest of the outline represents the topic sentences for each paragraph, relating
back to the prongs of the thesis statement in proper order. Outlines may contain
three or four levels of detail to provide support for the prongs of the thesis
statement (although more levels may be used if the writer wishes).
The format for this assignment uses Roman numerals for the main, or largest,
divisions of the outline (level one). Capital letters indicate the sub-levels of the
main divisions (level two). Arabic numerals indicate the sub-levels of the capitalletter sections (level three). Lower-case letters indicate the sub-levels of Arabicnumeral sections (level four). Each successive level in indented to show its
subordinance to the previous statement.
Outline Rules
1. The Rule of Pairs: If you have a I, you must have a II; if you have an A, then
you must have a B; if you have a 1, then you must have a 2, and so on.
2. Different sections of the outline may have different levels of detail. Give each
section the amount of detail it requires.
3. Indent each successive level of the outline using the tab key but maintaining
even internal margins throughout the outline. Your computer will recognize your
outline and begin to auto format for you. Be sure to keep the indented material
aligned.
4. Double-space between all headings in the outline (or double space the whole
outline and triple-space between headings).
Example of Typical Outline Structure
Thesis Statement (which contains major points or prongs)
I. (Prong one)
A. (Topic sentence)
1. (Cited support)
2. (Cited support)
B. (Topic sentence)
1. (Cited support)
2. (Cited support)
II. (Prong two)
A. (Topic sentence)
1. (Cited support)
2. (Cited support)
B. (Topic sentence)
1. (Cited support)
2. (Cited support)
III. (Prong three)
A. (Topic sentence)
1. (Cited support)
2. (Cited support)
B. (Topic sentence)
1. (Cited support)
2. (Cited support)
Example outline (partial) (Note alignment.)
Thesis Statement: Recent research links the rise in students with ADHD to the
media, the Internet, and video games.
I. Mounting evidence establishes a relationship between attention-deficit
disorders and television viewing.
A. Studies show that preschoolers who watch television are at risk for
attention deficit disorders later in life.
1. “The more TV infants and toddlers watch, the more likely they
are to have trouble paying attention and concentrating in their early
school years” (“Study Links TV” 2).
2. In a study of 1,300 children, researchers correlated the number
of hours watched by 1 to 3 yr. olds to scores their mothers reported
on a attention behavioral checklist at the age of 7 (Christakis qtd. in
“Study Links TV” 3).
Example paragraph built from the outlined material
Note the analytical sentences between the topic sentence and the support and
the conclusion at the end of the paragraph.
Studies show that preschoolers who watch television are at risk for
attention deficit disorders later in life. Dimitri Christakis, pediatrician, reported the
results of a study proving what many educators and physicians have observed
for years from Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center in Seattle in April
of this year. According to that study, “The more TV infants and toddlers watch,
the more likely they are to have trouble paying attention and concentrating in
their early school years.” (“Study Links TV”). Rather than a limited study, this one
was farther-reaching. In this study of 1,300 children, researchers correlated the
number of hours watched by 1 to 3 yr. olds to scores their mothers reported on a
attention behavioral checklist at the age of 7 showing a 10% increase in
impulsive behavior. (Christakis qtd. In “Study Links TV”). Very often, children in
this age group are allowed to watch TV because it is “educational.” However, this
study sends a warning. Such direct relationship between the number of hours of
TV watched and attention disorders should be alarming enough to wake up
parents and caregivers.
Woodruff 1
Katherine Woodruff
ENG 102
Elisabeth Borchers
22 February 2019
Why dictator-style leadership is better than laissez-faire style Leadership
Nawaz, Z. A. K. D. A., and Irfanullah Khan_ Ph.D. “Leadership theories and styles: A literature
review.” Leadership 16 (2016): 1-7.
Nawaz is a professional analyst with relation to human resource management. He has been
working as a human resource manager for more than twenty years and therefore has the authority
to research and analyze the leadership field. The source gives an insight into the relationship
between dictator leadership and laissez-Faire style Leadership giving both the benefits and the
challenges of each. The source finalizes by advocating for a dictator leadership as compared to
laissez-Faire style Leadership which brings lower productivity levels. The source has a close
connection with numerous sources which talk more about leadership and therefore a reliable
source. However, the source is biased in that it just gives companies that have succeed on a
dictator leadership as compared to laissez-Faire style Leadership. The intended audience by
Nawaz 2016, is the management and research students mostly those in the human resource
docket. I believe that the source gives all that one needs to know about the two types of
leadership and therefore choose on the best. I used keywords in searching for this source.
Khan, Muhammad Saqib, et al. “The styles of leadership: A critical review.” Public Policy and
Administration Research 5.3 (2015): 87-92.
Khan has been an informed researcher in the field of public policy and administration giving him
the credits to be an expert in the field. The source describes the attributes associated with both
types of leadership. It goes ahead to explain the reasons why a dictator leadership is better as
compared to laissez-Faire style Leadership. The source has borrowed broadly from other sources
which are all peer-reviewed and which give credible information. The research analyses on both
leadership styles and therefore no proof of bias. The intended audience by Khan, 2015 is broad
as it includes detailed information and hence any party in the human …
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