Expert Answer:Sleep and Its Importance discussion

  

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Do you get enough sleep? Do you sleep well? Sleep is very important. What happens to your
body when you do not sleep enough? What stage of sleep is most Important? What can you do
to improve your sleep?
To earn full credit:
*Respond to this question with 250 words by Wednesday and include a minimum of one
Bethel Library reference and one reference from your textbook.
*Respond to 2 classmates by writing posts that are at least 75 words by Sunday
*Give credit to your sources, APA guidelines here: http://bethelu.libguides.com/apa101
Sleep is often a practice of self-care which people ignore. From the reading, discuss why sleep
is important? What stage of sleep do you believe is most important? Are there biological
consequences due to sleep deprivation? What steps can you take to practice self-care?
The fine print (smile): (1.) Your initial post due one Wednesday must contain a minimum of
250 words. (2.) Your initial post must include a minimum of two references. This reference can
be your textbook and I provided you an example of this reference in APA format in the course
syllabus. (3.) By midnight on Sunday, you must respond to a minimum of two other
classmates. Each post must be a minimum of 75 words each. (4.) Please be courteous and
respectful with your classmates. (5.) Contact me if you have any questions.
Perceived social isolation or connectedness can produce
changes in the cells of our immune system.
W
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9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
The
Biological
Mind
W
I
L
L
Learning Objectives I
S
1 Debate the strengths and limitations
of biological psychology as a major psychological
roles
of
monism,
reductionism, and reciprocity between
perspective, considering the
betwe biology
,
The Physical Basis of Behavior
experience.
and expe
peri
rien
ence.
2 Anal
Analyze
lyzze the implications
impliccations of
of ad
adva
advances
v ncces in
n methods
methods used
d to
to study
studyy the
th brain for o
our
ur
unde
ers
rstanding of b
iolo
io
logicaaK
l psychology.
psyycho
holo
ogyy.
understanding
biological
3 Explai
Explain
ain
n what
what it me
mean
means
anss for aAneuron
on tto
o “fi
“fire”
fire
re”” an aaction
ctio
on pote
potential,
ent
ntial, d
describing
escr
es
crib
ibin
ing ho
how
w th
the neuron’s
structure makes this possible.
S
system
m to integrate
inte
tegr
grat
ate co
comp
mple
lS
x in
info
form
rmat
atio
ion.
complex
information.
Differentiate
Differ
rentiatee tthe
he rroles
oles
ol
es p
played
layyA
la
ed
db
byy ma
major
ajor n
neurotransmitters
euro
otranssmittteers iin
n su
sup
supporting
pporting physical ffunctioning
and psychological
psyc
ps
ycho
holo
ogi
gica
call experience.
exxpe
peri
rien
encee.
N
Differentiate the major branches of the nervous system, eexplaining
xpllain
xp
iniing the core biolo
biological
function of each branch. D
Associate key structures in,Rand regions of, the brain with important aspects of physical and
psychological functioning.
A
© Argosy Publishing,
blishing,
g, Inc.
4 Expla
Explain
ain
n the process by which neurons communicate
commu
mun
nicate with each other, allowing the nervous
5
6
7
8 Explain the process by which hormones influence psychological experience and
behavior, differentiating this process from neurotransmission.
2
Throughout
history, human survival has
1
been
threatened
by the various bacteria and viruses that
6
try to make us their home. The bacteria-driven Black
1 decimated Europe between 1346 and 1400, killDeath
T an estimated 30 to 60% of the population (Austin
ing
Alchon,
2003). Smallpox, measles, and influenza carS
ried by Europeans to the Western Hemisphere killed as
many as 90% of the native populations (PBS, 2005). The
“Spanish flu” of 1918, which is related to contemporary
bird flu strains, killed between 50 and 100 million people
worldwide in a period of about one year (Patterson & Pyle,
1991).
© A. Inden/Corbis
9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
125
Courtesy of Dr. Skirmantas Janusonis/University of
California, Santa Barbara. Photo © Roger Freberg
Human brains like this one,
carefully held byy one of
your authors,, weigh about
con
onta
t in
three poundss and contain
approximatelyy 10
100
billion
00 bi
b
llio
on
t’s about th
he same
neurons. That’s
the
number as thee stars
st s in our galaxy,
y,
y
y.
the Milky Way.
126
We have not been passive bystanders to this devastation. Even though
pandemics like the Black Death have caused remarkable destruction,
none has killed the entire human population. The survivors often possess some natural, protective resistance to infection, which might then be
passed along to their descendants. In some cases, resistance to one type of
organism offers protection from completely new organisms. Researchers
studying the HIV virus, which causes AIDS,
discovered that some people seemed unusually resistant to the virus due to a particular
genetic mutation. The mutation is common among northern Europeans, relatively
rare in southern Europeans, and completely
W absent among Asians, Africans, and Native
I Americans. Some researchers believed surviving the bacterial infection of the Black
L Death was related to the frequency of the
L mutation, while others point to surviving
I smallpox instead (Galvani & Slatkin, 2003).
The discussion so far might sound more like biology or medicine than
psychology, but behaviorSand mental processes have a considerable amount
, to fight bacteria and viruses (Cacioppo & Berof influence on our abilities
B
2011).
Once
human
social
environment
ntson, 2
011)
01
1). On
nce aagain,
gain
n, zo
zzooming
om
min
ing ou
outt to tthe
h hum
he
uman soc
cia
iall en
envi
v ro
onm
nmen
en
again
much
scale
complete
and zooming
zo
ooming back
baackk iin
n aga
ain
n to a m
uch
uc
h smaller sc
cal
ale gi
ggives
vees us a com
mpllet
etee and
K
interesting
intere
est
stin
i g picture.
pictu
uree.
Human
beings,
who
impressive
teeth
claws,
formed
Hu
uma
man
n be
b
in
ngs
gs,, wh
w
oA
lack imp
la
mpresssiv
ivee te
teet
eth
h or cla
law
ws, fo
form
rmed
ed ggroups
roup
ro
up
who
was
socially
excluded
to enhance the odds of their
survival.
Anyone
exclud
S
these
groups
experienced
hostile
environment.
from the
hese group
ps expe
p rienced a moree h
ostile environme
ent. Social excluex
separated
sion not
ot onlyy se
sepa
paraate
ted
d aSperson
pers
pe
rson
on from
fro
rom
m the
th help
heelp of
of others
othe
ot
hers
rs in
in life-threatening
life-threate
Adinng off
situations,
but
worse,
situatio
ons, perhaps
perh
pe
rhap
ps in fending
fen
n
off a predator,
prredaator
or, bu
ut wo
wors
rsee, could lead to
ciroutright
ht conflict
con
onfli
flict
ct with
wit
ith
h others,
othe
ot
herrs, including
in
nclud
din
ingg combat.
com
mbat
at. Under
Unde
Un
derr such hostile ci
N
cumstances, socially excluded people faced a greater
bactecumstances
great
ater
e risk
ris
isk from bacte
rial infections than fromDviruses. Bacteria enter the body through cuts
R
and scratches, whereas viruses
are transmitted through body fluids (e.g.,
sneezing), so you are most
A likely to be exposed to them when you are in
close contact with other people.
With that background in mind, take a look at the group of people in the
2 Do you think the woman on the left is feelimage on the preceding page.
ing included or excluded?
1 Surprisingly, whether we typically feel socially
isolated or socially connected can have serious implications for our health
6
(Cole, Hawkley, Arevalo, & Cacioppo, 2011). If this woman normally feels
isolated and often left to1fend for herself, she will, like her excluded ancestors, face a greater threatTfrom bacteria than from viruses. In that case,
her brain will generate hormonal signals that will tell her immune system
S
(shown in the larger image) to gear up to protect her against bacteria.
In contrast, if she usually feels socially connected to others, her brain
will initiate a cascade of hormonal signals that tell her immune cells to
prepare to protect her against viruses. This is just one example of how the
mind’s perceptions of the social environment—whether it is friendly or
not, for instance—can impact biological processes that are important to
health and survival.
Chapter 4
9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
In the previous chapter on nature and nurture, we learned how the
challenges of surviving and reproducing in particular physical and social
environments could shape a species’ biology and behavior. In turn, the
resulting biological structures and processes of the mind exert profound
influences on our physical and social environments. In this chapter, we
will provide a foundation for understanding the biological bases of behavior and mental processes by exploring the structures of the nervous system and the ways that they function. E
What Is Biological Psychology?
© Dimi
Dimitri
D
imitri
tri Iundt/TempSport/Corbis
Iundt
Iu
Many of us find the concept that our “minds” are someW
how a result of the activity of nerve cells a bit unsetI
tling. How could our feelings, thoughts, and memories
L
be caused by a bunch of cells? Shouldn’t there be more
to who I am than something so physical? Such ideas
L led
thinkers like René Descartes to propose a philosophy
I
of dualism, which suggests that “mind” is somehow difSare
ferent and separate from our physical being. If you
moree comfortab
comfortable
with
ble w
ith thinking about mind this,way,
go right
recognize
that
ght ahead, as long
lon
ong as you rec
ecog
ogni
nize tha
hatt thee fie
field
of biological
ologi
gical psychology,
psyccholo
ogy, and the
th
he neurosciences
neurosciien
nce
ces in
n gengen
enK
eral, embraces the
competing
philosophy
monism.
h com
ompe
peting p
hilosophyy off mon
nism.
m.
According
monistic
what
rdiingg to the m
rd
onisticc approach,
approa
oach
ch,, th
the mi
mind
nd is A
what
the brain
raiin does.
S
Biological
interdisciplinary
Biolog
gicaal psychology
psych
chol
ologyy is a rich,
ri
interdiscipl
p inaryy field of study
stu
st
udyy that
combines
methods
theories
psychology
those
off bi
biology,
bines thee m
etho
et
h ds and theo
oriies of p
sych
sy
chol
olog
ogyySwi
with
th tho
hose
se o
biol
log
ogy,,
physiology,
the neurosciences,
related
iology, biochemistry,
bi
neu
uro
oscien
ences, and
and other
otA
her
er relat
ated fields.
fieldss. While
fi
W ilee
Wh
investigating
behavior,
tigating a particular behavio
or, the
the biological
bio
iolo
logi
gica
call psychologist
psyc
ps
logist
st focuses
foc
ocusses on
on
Nycholo
links between observed behavior and genetic factors,
factors biochemical factors,
factors
and the activity level and structural characteristicsDof the nervous system.
R biological factors to
These links do not travel in one direction only, from
behavior, but are more accurately viewed as reciprocal.
For example, we
A
know that if you administer extra testosterone to human males, raising
their testosterone to above normal levels, they are likely to behave more
2 case, biology (raising
aggressively (Pope, Kouri, & Hudson, 2000). In this
testosterone levels) is influencing behavior (aggression).
However, we also
1
know that watching his favorite sports team lose lowers a man’s testoster6
one levels (Bernhardt, Dabbs, Fielden, & Lutter, 1998). Here we see the
influence of behavior (supporting a particular team1and watching the team
lose) on biology (testosterone levels).
T
S
Advances in the methods we use to observe the
structure and function of the nervous system have
driven the history of biological psychology. The discovery of contemporary methods, such as the
recording and imaging of brain activity, opened
whole new areas of inquiry to biological psychologists. Before these methods were available, however, most of our knowledge of the nervous system
Early Attempts
to Understand
Biological
Psychology
Not only does biology infl
influence
(thinking about
behavior, but behavior (th
winning
winn
wi
nnin
ing
g aand
n losing in this case) affects
nd
biology.
biol
bi
olog
ogy. Players and even the fans of a
winning
winn
wi
nnin
i g team experience a temporary
increase
while the
incre
in
easse in testosterone, w
players
and
l
d ffans off the
h llosing team
experience a temporary decrease in
testosterone.
biological psychology The
interdisciplinary field of study that
combines the methods and theories
of psychology with those of biology,
physiology, biochemistry, the
neurosciences, and other related fields.
WHAT IS BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY?
9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
127
resulted from clinical observations of injured or mentally ill individuals or
autopsy, the examination of bodies after death. When used together with
contemporary methods, clinical observation and autopsy are quite accurate, but early thinkers lacking contemporary methods often struggled in
their attempts to understand the physical basis of mind. They understood
many things correctly while making some notable errors. Aristotle, who
was accurate on many issues, mistakenly believed that the heart, not the
brain, was the source of mental activity.
An interesting historical mistake was phrenology. Toward the end of
the 18th century, phrenologists proposed that the pattern of bumps on an
individual’s skull correlated with his or her personality traits and abilities
W
I
L
L
I
S
,
Autopsy has been used since 3000 BCE, and it remains a useful source of information, especially
in forensics. Dr. Bill Bass, a forensic anthropologist, studies donated bodies as they decompose
at the “Body Farm” at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. The knowledge gained from these
investigations makes it possible to determine time of death at crime scenes.
Photo © Jon Jefferson; courtesy of JeffersonBass.com
Thinking
Scientifically
K
A
S
When Doe
Does
es Re
Reductionism
eductionism
m Wo
Work?
ork? S
When Does
Doe
es It
It Fail?
Fail?
A
N
is participating in neural signaling,
eductionism
ductionism in science is
D
flavoring our food, contributing
to
defined as the explanation
high blood pressure, or making us
of complex things as sums
R
float more easily when we swim in
of simpler things. Taking a rather
A principle
the ocean, the fundamental
extreme reductionist approach, sci-
R
ence fiction often features scenes in
which an android reminds a human
that they’re really not so different
after all—the brain is just a computer
made up of chemicals, nothing more,
nothing less.
In some ways, all modern science
is reductionist. Scientists assume that
whether you are studying particle
physics or human behavior, a single
set of fundamental laws explains
much of what we observe. We do not
need new sets of rules for the features of table salt (sodium chloride)
in each context in which it appears.
Regardless of whether the chemical
128
Chapter 4
|
is the same: salt is salt.
The scientific search for fundamental principles has 2
been fruitful,
to say the least, but it1does have
limitations. Although we can learn a
6
lot by breaking apart complex
things
to study simple things,1we saw some
of the risks to this approach in the
T
debates between the structuralists
and Gestalt psychologists.
S Fish swim
in schools, geese and ducks fly in a
V-formation, ants and bees swarm,
cattle form herds, and human beings
form societies. We could never
understand these more complex
phenomena by studying the behav-
ior of an in
indi
d vi
di
v dual member of th
individual
the
group. Nobel laureate physicist P. W.
Anderson reminded scientists that
large collections of simple things do
not always behave the same way that
simple things behave in isolation. He
wrote that “at each stage (of complexity) entirely new laws, concepts,
and generalizations are necessary,
requiring inspiration and creativity to
just as great a degree as in the previous one. Psychology is not applied
biology, nor is biology applied chemistry” (Anderson, 1972, p. 393).
This chapter on the biological
foundations of behavior and mental
processes relies extensively on reductionist thinking. As you work through
the chapter, however, it is important
to keep Anderson’s cautions in mind.
We will begin by analyzing the mind
THE BIOLOGICAL MIND: THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR
9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
Phrenologists believed that “reading” the bumps on a person’s
head, using a bust like this as a reference, could tell them
about a person’s character.
rsto
utte
©F
abi
oF
ersa
/Sh
at the cellular level by examining
nerve cells and their activity. Then
our view zooms out from cells to
the larger structures of the brain
and spinal cord to circuits to
systems to beyond the body
itself with social interactions among other systems
(i.e., other people). As we
embark on this journey,
it’s important for you to
remember that some
aspects of behavior will
continue to be governed
by rules that explain the
actions of simple things,
while others will require
the introduction of new
rules better suited to more
complex combinations and interactions of simple things. E
ck
K
A
S
S
A
N
D
R
A
© Terry Why/Phototake
(Simpson, 2005). The brain supposedly worked like a muscle, getting larger through use, leading frequently used areas of the brain
to grow so much that the skull above these areas would bulge.
Phrenologists “read” a person’s character by locating the bumps on
a person’s head and identifying the personality traits below each
bump according to a map. None of these ideas, of course, was close
W
to being accurate.
I
Phrenology was especially popular in the United
States during
the latter half of the 19th century, with employersLasking prospective
employees to undergo phrenological exams, young lovers seeking exams
L
to ensure compatibility, and even presidential candidates submitting to
I wrong about the
exams (Stern, 1971). Although the phrenologists were
significance of bumps on the skull and the effects S
of activity on the structure of the brain, they did reach one correct conclusion. Their notion that
, re
somee behaviorall func
functions
localized
off the br
brain
ctions are locali
lize
zed to
o ccertain
erta
er
tain aareas
r as o
rai
ain
n is onee
we share
haree ttoday.
oday
od
a.
Viewing a complex conce
Viewing
View
concept as a sum
of its
ts ssimpler
impler parts is not always
the
its full
h best
b way to understand
d
meaning.
2
1
6
1
T
S
© nito/Shutterstock
WHAT IS BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY?
9781305461994, Discovering Psychology: The Science of the Mind, Cacioppo/Freberg – © Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. No distribution allowed without express authorization.
129
More modern perspectives of the nervous system
emerged from the work of scientists like 19th-century
neurologist John Hughlings Jackson (1835–1911).
Based on observations of his patients with seizure
disorders, Jackson proposed that the nervous system is organized as a hierarchy, with progressively more complicated
behaviors being managed by more recently evolved and complex structures
(Jackson, 1884).
We can see Jackson’s hierarchy at work when we observe people drinking alcohol. Alcohol specifically decreases the activity of parts of the brain
involved with judgment and decision making. When a person has had too
much to drink, the more complex social controls (such as know …
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