Solved by verified expert:Answer the following question. Your answer should be at least three paragraphs in length and should be presented in your own words. Any use of quoted material must be properly cited.Why do people debate the use of SAT scores for college admission?Reference textbook: You May Ask Yourself An Introduction to Thinking like a Sociologist (Fifth Edition) 5th EditionTips:- Not the ideal way to choose candidates- It only suit for the specific types of education and students.- Afraid of standard test- better in academic achievement not score
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Week 11 Lecture
• Although school is
supposed to be the
institution in society that
opportunity, it ends up
sorting and stratifying
students by the
backgrounds from which
What is Education? 1
• Education is the process through which
academic, social, and cultural ideas and
tools are developed.
• Unfortunately, not all students emerge
successfully from this system
What is Education 2
• Some problems
– Functional illiteracy: the inability to read or
write well enough to function in society
– Innumeracy: having insufficient math skills to
function in society
Schooling Functions 1
• The two main functions of schools are to educate
students and to socialize them.
– Schools teach general skills, such as reading,
writing, and arithmetic, as well as specific
skills needed for the workplace.
– Human capital refers to the knowledge and
skills that make someone more productive and
Schooling Functions 2
• Schools transmit
values, beliefs, and
attitudes that are
important to society.
Schooling Functions 3
• This hidden curriculum serves to form a more
cohesive society but has also been used to
impose the values of a dominant culture on
outsiders and minorities.
Schooling Functions 4
• Schools have been described as sorting
machines that place students into programs and
groups according to their skills, interests, and
• Critics argue that this sorting process is not
based solely on merit and that ultimately it
serves to reproduce social inequalities.
Do Schools Matter?
• The 1966 Coleman Report showed differences in
achievement among schools were explained by two primary
factors, family background and peers, rather than by
differences in school resources, as had been expected.
• Since the 1980s, it has been shown that reducing class sizes
has a positive impact on student performance.
• Private school students perform better academically than
their peers at public schools, in part due to academic and
What Happens in Schools?
• Tracking involves dividing students into different classes
according to ability or future plans.
• In practice, tracking has a number of negative effects and
may be more beneficial for those who are already
• The Pygmalion effect, or self-fulfilling prophecy, is the
process that occurs when behavior is modified to meet
• In 1910, 3 percent of men and women over
age 25 had a college degree.
• In 2014, 33 percent of men and women
over age 25 had a college degree.
– There is an overemphasis on credentials, such
as college degrees, for signaling social status
or job qualifications.
– As increasing numbers of people meet the
qualifications for certain types of jobs,
employers upgrade the requirements in order
to weed out more people
• The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) has been
shown to accurately predict a student’s potential
for college success.
• However, critics argue that there are other equally
good predictors that don’t share the SAT’s
Inequalities in School 1
• Sociologists are still interested in understanding the
achievement gap between white and minority students.
• This has often been attributed to class, but other theories
include the internalization of negative stereotypes.
• The achievement gap between girls and boys has been closing
in many academic measures, but women are still earning less
money than men, leading sociologists to investigate it further.
Inequalities in Schools 2
• Studies show that family size, spacing between
siblings, gender, and birth order can all affect
• Socioeconomic class, race, and ethnicity are often
intertwined and clearly affect educational outcomes.
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