Expert Answer:Sociology of North American Sport: INTERCOLLEAGIAT

  

Solved by verified expert:I have attached the file below. please read the discussion lecture and complete the discussion question which is on the last page. The discussion question is based off first half of Chapter 10. The post must be minimum of 2 paragraphs. The topic is about sports/cultures. Complete the post from a guys perspective.I have also attached Chapter 10 reading.
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Lecture:
So, I am exhausted. Between going through your exams and dealing with the time change, I am out of
energy. And, I imagine you all a bit tired after taking the exam as well. (Arizona has its problems, but I
miss living in a state that never changes time. Losing an hour in the spring is not enjoyable and having
the sun go down an hour earlier in the winter is awful.)
Blackboard should be hiding your grades from you right now, because I grade everything twice. I go
through them once, I make notes to myself to double check various answers and then go back and
correct the exams again. If you can see your grade, you should not be able to see it and it is not the
correct grade. Some of your grades will go up a little bit, some will go down a little bit, and some will stay
the same. I should be done grading everything by Thursday or Friday. When I am completely done I will
post my key in the announcements.
Today we are going to discuss the first half of the intercollegiate chapter. Intercollegiate sports in
America started in 1852 with Harvard and Yale’s rowing competition. Early intercollegiate sports were
organized and managed by students. The students acted as organizers, coaches, and players. However,
students quickly lost control and the schools took over. In 1895 the Big Ten league formed and by 1905
we see an early incarnation of the NCAA form. Amazingly, women’s sports wouldn’t be added into the
NCAA until 1981.
In the current structure, students have little say about the structure of the NCAA. Control lies with the
coaches, administrations, booster organizations, and various national and corporate organizations.
Intercollegiate sports have transitioned from a form of organized sports to (in some cases) a hypercommercial industry. Sadly, illegal recruiting, altered transcripts, phantom courses, physical and
psychological abuse, and the exploitation of student athletes has accompanied this transition into a
commercial sports industry. It is possible that big-time athletics have not only corrupted college sports but
the goals and ideals of higher education as a whole. Every now and again, I see sports interfere with
academics at my university in NY. Most recently one of my students at a D-III school bragged to me about
signing up for bullshit classes taught by his coach who doesn’t make him do anything.
While bragging to a professor about bullshit classes is a bit crazy, what makes my student all the more
amazing is that D-III schools are supposed to subject athletes to the same admission standards,
academic standards, and support services as their peers. D-III is supposed to provide a well-rounded
collegiate experience that minimizes the conflict between sports and academics. Why is my D-III school
creating worthless classes for our D-III athletes?
D-III schools are very different than the D-I programs that our chapter focuses on. D-I programs are
commercial enterprises that often cater to spectators rather than players and often focus on generating
profit. We see this in Turner Broadcasting’s 11-billion-dollar deal with NCAA, in universities selling naming
rights to stadiums (when I graduated from Arizona State, I got my degree in a stadium named after a
bank that was recently caught opening false accounts to help boost their stock price, engaging in
discriminatory practices with home loans, and a whole list of illegal and unethical behaviors), and in the
wages of coaches. 30 football coaches make over 4 million each year, and 15 assistant coaches make
over 1 million each year. This is amazing when we figure in that university presidents make 450K per year
on average. The president of SUNY Oneonta (before benefits) makes $250K and the president of CSUEB
makes 300K (likely before benefits). Moreover, full professors average 118K per year and assistant
professors at SUNY Oneonta make around 56K. This is an amazing disparity within the university system
and with this kind of money it is difficult to call the NCAA an amateur league.
Note: professor rankings are as follows 1) adjunct (be nice to your poor adjuncts, they make basically
nothing each year. In NY, schools often limit adjuncts to two classes per semester in order to block them
from receiving benefits and they receive roughly 3K to teach each class); 2) lecturers (full-time but
temporary workers); 3) assistant professors (I am an assistant professor, this means I’m full time and
working towards tenure); 4) associate professors (tenured); and 5) full professors. Full professors are a
big deal. Even if I keep my job and do well for the next 50 years, I am not assured to ever become a full
professor.
Looking at intercollegiate sports from a functionalist and conflict perspective brings about dramatically
different results. As we all know, functionalism looks at universities as a place to socialize people into
society and sport is part of that cultural transmission. Moreover, admin, some faculty, and some students
believe that sport teams are important parts of campus life, generate publicity for the school, and bring in
alumni support. They are also believed to breed spirit and unity among those on campus and help the
university develop connections with politicians. Conflict theorists look at universities and see how they
may reinforce and perpetuate social inequality. Students have unequal opportunities in gaining
acceptance to school, the universities offer unequal levels of education, and have dramatically different
levels of prestige. I often worry about my students who are taking loans out to pay for school. How will my
students with little social capital and little economic capital ever leverage their degree into a decent
paying job? And, even if they get a decent paying job, will it matter if they are deeply in debt? I took out
20K in loans as a student. These loans will cost me at least 33K. (Be careful about taking on debt. It really
sucks and makes it difficult to get going in life. Also, I strongly suggest stopping by the financial aid office
or career center to ask them if they have a financial literacy and wellness program, if they don’t let me
know.)
Despite the belief that the big-time athletic programs are profitable, only 10% of D-I schools make “profit”
each year. In order to cover the salaries for coaches, assistant coaches, facilities, etc., universities draw
on the university’s general fund or student fees. 1.8-billion-dollars in student fees and general funds prop
up athletic programs. Only 23 out of 229 programs create enough money to cover their expenses and of
that group 16 still receive a subsidy. Amazingly, our book points out that Northern Arizona gets 3 million
in government support for its athletic program. I found this astounding, as my former boss, who is now the
Governor of Arizona, recently cut 22 million dollars in state funding for NAU (tuition at NAU is roughly 11K
per year compared to CSUEB, which is roughly 7K per year). Donations to athletic programs act as
indirect subsidies to wealthy fans. Tax payers, contributors, and student fees also pay for new stadiums,
which allow the athletic departments to shift the financial responsibility else where.
These large athletic programs often run into financial trouble, because only a few sports actually produce
revenue. There is also an ever increasing arms race that encourages the admin to spend more on
coaches and upgrade facilities. The schools often spare no expense when it comes to the income
generating sports. Teams may even stay in hotels the night before a home game. The idea is if we spend
on these sports, it will result in more wins, which will result in more money. However, the NCAA’s
research does not provide much support for the “common sense” argument among admin, fans, and
some politicians. Furthermore, some feel that the university is being used by the sports program. Finally,
the NCAA claims that athletes must be protected from exploitation, even though our authors argue that
the student-athletes are likely being exploited by the NCAA.
Question:
For our discussion this week, I want you simply to react to the first half of the chapter and discuss the
notion of whether or not student athletes are exploited. I imagine many of you have strong opinions about
the question of exploitation; I ask you to please make sure you are using information from the book to
politely frame your position on this topic.
Part 2: Reply Back to following post
There is a strong notion that student athletes are exploited. I personally find this true. As the book
mentions, college sport is one big business. The chapter states that every college athlete’s goal is to
become an intercollegiate player, yet the pressure of remaining in good academic standing and playing
well enough to keep a scholarship and make the team amount to lots of stress for the student. I
personally have seen college athletes who care more about the sport than their studies and choose to
obtain the easiest degree. In addition, student athletes have their own counselors, who often give them
priority or more attention than regular students. As a college student, taking on 5 or 6 classes a semester
is hard enough, let alone having to practice every day for 4-5 days a week.Students are income
generators for the school. They essentially play for nothing, perhaps play for a scholarship if they are
lucky, in hopes of making it to the big leagues, yet that percentage remains low for the common student
athlete. In turn, the student plays hard, while the school charges students to participate in the sport, and
again charges for game tickets on game night. In short, yes, I do believe student athletes are exploited;
as their focus becomes for the sport, rather than for the education.
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