Expert Answer:Theoretical Application Paper


Solved by verified expert:For this paper, you need to consider how the theories we have discussed relate to your public campaign idea. You will need to identify at least 3 social psychology theories* ** and discuss how the theories could inform what you do to develop your public campaign. the theories you will talk about are as following: Theoretical Application Paper Questions to help you think about how the various theories could inform your public campaign’s persuasive messages. Expectancy-Value Theory (helps to consider how to predict behaviors based on thoughts/feelings)Selective Perception Theory (helps to consider how your audience’s expectations impact their perception)Inoculation Theory (helps you consider how to deal with counter arguments) What attitudes could support your exigency?What attitudes could support your solution?What attitudes could counter your exigency?What attitudes could counter your solution?How could you counter the attitudes that counter your exigency and/or solution? What does your audience think or feel when they see or hear your exigency?What does your audience think or feel when they see or hear your solution? What counter-arguments might prevent your audience from accepting your exigency arguments?What could be your counter to their counter-arguments?What counter-arguments might prevent your audience from accepting your solution arguments?What could be your counter to their counter-arguments? You need to define the theories to demonstrate that you understand the theories, and then discuss how you would apply the theory to help you in your campaign. The paper should be 1200 words* ** and must include a reference list and in-text citations following a proper citation format; this means you should be citing course materials, and only course materials, to discuss theories. NOTE: Theories are not proper nouns and thus should not be capitalized as such. Please only use the PowerPoints that are attached that are attached//======================================================================================here are some details, the topic you will talk abut is “how education should be free for college and university in u.s. “I have attached a papers that help you to understand the topic more. Please look at them before you start. and please don’t use any resources only the PowerPoints that i have attached.


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Persuasion involves changing mental state of
person with freedom to choose amongst behaviors
 Changing mental state to influence choice of
particularly desired behavior.
 That mental state = attitude.
 Thus, goal of persuasion = to influence behavioral
intention through attitude change.


Learned predisposition to respond favorably or
unfavorably toward some attitude object
What does learned predisposition mean?
 What does respond favorably or unfavorably mean?
 What are examples of attitude objects?

Built on expectancy-value theory
 What

we think about or believe in said object
How we view the world, what is true/false
 Try
to influence with messages
Most influenced by factual argument
 Any belief can be changed, depends on timing & approach

 Need
to know direction, depth, importance
 More important see beliefs as categories, not
How feel about, how evaluate
 Emotional response to attitude object

Negative, positive, conflicted, ambivalent based on beliefs
Beliefs underlie, provide awareness
 Emotions regulate motivation to act
 Preference implies intended behavior to object

Seek preference modification by altering beliefs
 Modify both thoughts and feelings to shape behavior

 Behavior
Verbal indication or behavioral tendency
 Predisposition to act in particular context
 Based on how feel towards object

 Prediction
from beliefs + feelings

Actual behavior expressed in context

Circumstances affect expression
Social pressure factors
 Individual factors
 Cultural factors

Need make message most prevalent for specific context
• Expectations impact perception (how “see” things)
• Selectivity based on schemata
– Attend to what hold important
– Attend to what relates to experiences
– Process based on what know
• Where selectivity impacts attitudes and behavior
– Selective attention
– Selective perception
– Selective exposure
– Selective retention
• For handling barriers/counter-arguments
• Build up resistance to counter-persuasion
– Present weaker form of argument audience might have against your
• Audience needs perceive their position as vulnerable to
– Remind/convince of vulnerability
• Presenting weaker version counter-argument to your argument
• Greater perceived threat, greater inoculation
– Then refute counter-argument
• Weakens threatening argument
• Helps audience engage in own counter-arguing
this paper will help you to know more about the topic and will help you as you write about
the theories.
Persuasive Idea Paper
When someone mentions higher learning, we tend to think of tertiary forms of
education which are beyond the elementary education level and high school level. People
think about state universities and colleges. It is a dream of every young person to have more
develop knowledge through an education system until the undergraduate and post-graduate
levels. According to Assembly (1948), 26 articles of the United Nations Declaration of
Human Rights claim that every person has a right to education, at least in the elementary and
fundamental stages. Furthermore, the document states that technical and professional
education shall be made accessible to everyone on an equal basis and also on the basis of
merit. According to this, every parent strives to provide their child with the education that
they deserve which they can use to better their lives.
However, not every child gets an opportunity to study till college or university. One
of the main issues that would prevent students to not go to college is that them not being able
to pay the tuition or not having someone support them financially. Assembly mentioned that
the average cost for a 3 years medical school is around $243,902 if the university is public.
The cost is to be much higher if the university is private (1948). As of this, we should
implement free education in the centres of higher learning.
Moreover, there is an urgency to solve this problem. According to the statistics
provided by the National Centre for Education Statistics (2018), there were about 56.6
million students attending elementary and secondary schools in the United States, out of
which 50.7 million students were attending public schools and 5.9 million in private schools.
It is estimated that the total number of students who are attending public elementary and
secondary schools to increase between 2018 and 2027 to 52.1 million. What is more, as, in
2018, the number of students attending American colleges and universities was 19.9 million.
The total enrolment of students attending the colleges and universities is also said to increase
by 2027 to about 20.5 million. From these statistics, it is evident that the total number of
students who are receiving elementary and secondary education is higher as compared to the
total number of students who are enrolled in colleges and universities. The urgent challenge
appears because the number of students who are expected to enroll in elementary and
secondary schools is estimated to increase meaning that there will be a potential increase in
the number of students who will not be able to obtain tertiary education in the near future.
This is a big challenge for our students as education is fundamental in creating a platform for
them to better their lives in the future.
Additionally, statistics show that there are many factors that could be associated with
the low total number of students who are enrolled in colleges and universities but one of them
is the lack of enough funds to facilitate their learning. According National Centre for
Education Statistics(2018), the percentage of students who were enrolling in college
immediately following completion of high school was 69.8 percent in the year 2016. The
average annual price per year of an undergraduate student for tuition fees, room, and board
for the year 2016 to 2017 was estimated to be $17,237 and $44,551 at public and private
institutions of higher learning respectively. This is a lot of money for some of the families
and it poses a challenge for students by acting as a barrier for them to continue with their
education in the colleges and universities. According to the Hechinger Report (2017), a
realistic magnitude example occurs as of the years of 2015 and 2016 when 2.5 million
students who were attending public universities dropped out of college because of debt.
It is also a challenge for the working class who are planning to increase their
education by doing post-graduate degrees to enhance their career life as the attainment of
higher education among young adults aged between 25 and 34 years is associated with higher
earnings (National Centre for Education Statistics, 2018).
In solving this challenge, there is a proposition of implementing free education in the
centers of higher learning; not only in the United States but also in the countries of the world,
especially in the Middle East. According to CNN Philippines Staff (2018), one of the
countries which have implemented free education in colleges and State universities is the
Philippines. President Rodrigo Duberte signed the free tuition law which enabled free tuition
fees in the colleges and universities that are in the country in March 2018. It has since been
effective in their country since then and students have been provided with full tuition subsidy
for all the State Universities and Colleges (SUCs) as well as the local universities, colleges
and technical-vocational institutions that are run by the state.
The United States is also not being left behind as there are some specific universities
that are taking it as a responsibility to offer free university education to students who are from
low-income and middle-income families. An example of such a university is Rice University
which has an initiative called The Rice Investment. Here, the students coming from families
which earn an income of under $130,000 are not paying tuition fees for their learning. In
addition, those students from families with incomes below $65,000 receive grant aids which
cover their school education as well as room fees and board fees (Crespo, 2018).
Interestingly, there was also an anonymous donor who contributed $3 million for the
education of an entire medical school class for their tuition fees in the Texas University.
Thirty students were able to benefit from this person’s donation and it was a really generous
gift (Ahmed, 2018). However, people like this do not always exist and we cannot rely on
such chances to occur to enable students to enjoy their tertiary education.
In terms of the solution to this problem, it is crucial to have a strong education policy
that allows for the integration of free education in the state universities and colleges as this
will encourage students to diversify their minds and create businesses or advance in different
ways in their careers. It will provide an equal opportunity for everyone to be able to succeed
in their lives as opposed to when only a few students in society get the chance to further their
studies after attending high school.
Moreover, the implementation of such a government policy will not only solve the
issue of students not being able to learn due to lack of adequate funds but it will also solve
the issue of student debts after undergraduate and post-graduate education. If the government
caters for the education of students in the institution of higher learning, the students will not
be set back by repaying high student debts right after getting a job. This is normally a
challenge to students who use student loans to pay for their university or college tuition fees
and it is an example of how solving one large problem can eliminate another potential
problem. We are hoping that government focus on education and gives it more attention as it
is the future for the country. We are hoping that government make education free for all .
Ahmed, S (2018, July 20). An entire medical school class will get free tuition thanks to an
anonymous $3 million donation. CNN. Retrieved from:
Assembly, U. G. (1948). Universal declaration of human rights. UN General Assembly.
CNN Philippines Staff (2018, March 16). List: Universities and colleges with free tuition
starting 2018. Retrieved from:
Crespo, G. (2018, September 18). Rice University to offer free tuition to low-income and
middle-income undergraduate students. CNN. Retrieved from:
National Centre for Education Statistics (2018) School Statistics. Elementary, Secondary, and
Higher Learning. Retrieved from:
The Hechinger Report. (2017, November 7). 3.9 million students dropped out of college with
debt in 2015 and 2016. Retrieved from

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