Expert Answer:Trends in U.S. Corrections Paper

  

Solved by verified expert:Please respond to the following Just Mercy questions, one to two sentences each.1. Does it seem like the jury now believes Ralph Myers?2. What are your impressions of Mrs. Williams?3. Of all the evidence presented in this trial, which is the most likely to sway the judge’s ruling? Which is the least likely?Please respond to the following reflection questions from The 13th Amendment video”1. Define, in your own words, the 13th Amendment including the exception clause. Discuss how this exception clause has impacted our criminal justice system, mass incarceration, and the disproportionate number of African Americans in prison today. (Two paragraphs)2. Which U.S. President was the most responsible for poor policies leading to even greater increases in the prison population and a greater disparity of African Americans? Identify and discuss at least three of these policies. (2-3 paragraphs).3. Discuss how the financial motives for incarceration have evolved since the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 until now. (1-2 paragraphs)
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FACT SHEET: TRENDS IN U.S. CORRECTIONS
Trends in U.S. Corrections
U.S. State and Federal Prison Population, 1925-2015
2015: 1,476,847
1,600,000
1,400,000
Number of People
1,200,000
1,000,000
800,000
600,000
400,000
200,000
2015
2013
2010
2006
2002
1998
1994
1990
1986
1982
1978
1974
1970
1966
1958
1962
1954
1950
1946
1938
1942
1930
1934
1925
0
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics Prisoners Series.
International Rates of Incarceration per 100,000
United States
670
Russia
439
Rwanda
434
Brazil
307
Australia
162
Spain
129
China
118
Canada
114
France
101
Austria
93
Germany
76
Denmark
59
Sweden
53
India
30
Source: Walmsley, R. (2016). World Prison Brief. London: Institute for Criminal Policy Research. Available online: http://www.
prisonstudies.org/world-prison-brief
The Sentencing Project • 1705 DeSales Street NW, 8th Floor • Washington, D.C. 20036 • sentencingproject.org
1
FACT SHEET: TRENDS IN U.S. CORRECTIONS
MASS INCARCERATION
State Expenditures on Corrections in Billions,
1985-2015
The United States is the world’s leader in incarceration
with 2.2 million people currently in the nation’s prisons
and jails — a 500% increase over the last forty years.
Changes in sentencing law and policy, not changes
in crime rates, explain most of this increase. These
trends have resulted in prison overcrowding and
fiscal burdens on states to accommodate a rapidly
expanding penal system, despite increasing evidence
that large-scale incarceration is not an effective means
of achieving public safety.
56.9
51.4
42.3
36.4
26.1
16.9
6.7
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
Source: National Association of State Budget Officers (1985-2015).
State Expenditure Report Series. Washington, DC: National Association
of State Budget Officers.
State & Federal Prison Population by Offense, 2015
Federal
7.4%
State
52.9%
Violent
49.5%
Drug
6%
36.3%
15.7%
19.0%
Property
8.0%
16.3%
12.0%
Immigration
Weapons
Other
Other
0.8%
11.6%
Public Order
0.8%
Source: Carson, E.A. and Anderson, E. (2016). Prisoners in 2015. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Population Under Control of the U.S. Corrections System, 1980 and 2015
3,789,800
2015
1,526,800
1980
1,118,097
870,500
728,200
319,598
Prison
182,288
Jail
220,438
Parole
Probation
Sources: Kaeble, D. and Glaze, N. (2016). Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics;
Corrections: Key Facts at a Glance. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
The Sentencing Project • 1705 DeSales Street NW, 8th Floor • Washington, D.C. 20036 • sentencingproject.org
2
FACT SHEET: TRENDS IN U.S. CORRECTIONS
DRUG POLICY
Number of People in Prisons and Jails for Drug
Offenses, 1980 and 2015
Sentencing policies of the War on Drugs era
resulted in dramatic growth in incarceration for
drug offenses. Since its official beginning in the
1980s, the number of Americans incarcerated
for drug offenses has skyrocketed from 40,900
in 1980 to 469,545 in 2015. Furthermore, harsh
sentencing laws such as mandatory minimums
keep many people convicted of drug offenses in
prison for longer periods of time: in 1986, people
released after serving time for a federal drug
offense had spent an average of 22 months in
prison. By 2004, people convicted on federal drug
offenses were expected to serve almost three
times that length: 62 months in prison.
1980: 40,900 individuals
2015: 469,545 individuals
2015
206,300
171,245
92,000
1980
19,000
17,200
4,700
State Prisons
Federal Prisons
Jails
Sources: Carson, E.A. and Anderson, E. (2016). Prisoners in 2015.
Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics; James, D.J. (2004). Profile of
Jail Inmates, 2002. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics; Mauer, M.
and King, R. (2007). A 25-Year Quagmire: The War on Drugs and its Impact
on American Society. Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project; Minton,
T.D. and Zeng, Z. (2016). Jail Inmates in 2015. Washington, DC: Bureau of
Justice Statistics.
At the federal level, people incarcerated on a drug
conviction make up just under half the prison
population. At the state level, the number of
people in prison for drug offenses has increased
ten-fold since 1980. Most of these people are not
high-level actors in the drug trade, and most have
no prior criminal record for a violent offense.
Number of People in Federal Prisons for Drug Offenses, 1980-2015
186,545
185,917
160,524
131,739
83,669
All offenses
Drug offenses
56,909
87,800
97,800
92,000
74,276
46,667
35,555
24,297
22,037
4,749
1980
9,491
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
Sources: Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics Online; Carson, E.A. and Anderson, E. (2016). Prisoners in 2015. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice
Statistics.
The Sentencing Project • 1705 DeSales Street NW, 8th Floor • Washington, D.C. 20036 • sentencingproject.org
3
FACT SHEET: TRENDS IN U.S. CORRECTIONS
WOMEN
Number of Women in State and Federal Prisons, 1980-2015
The number of women in prison
has been increasing at a rate 50
percent higher than men since
1980. Women in prison often have
significant histories of physical
and sexual abuse, high rates of HIV,
and substance abuse problems.
Women’s imprisonment in femaleled households leads to children
who suffer from their mother’s
absence and breaks in family ties.
107,518
112,867 111,495
93,234
68,468
44,065
21,406
13,206
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
2015
Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics Prisoners Series; Minor-Harper, S. (1986). State and
Federal Prisoners, 1925-1985. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Highest and Lowest State Incarceration Rates (per 100,000), 2015
Overall (National = 458)
State
Women (National = 64)
State
Rate
HIGHEST
Oklahoma
151
Kentucky
115
Idaho
112
Arizona
105
Missouri
105
LOWEST
Rhode Island
11
Massachusetts
14
Maine
19
New Jersey
New York
Rate
HIGHEST
Louisiana
776
Oklahoma
715
Alabama
611
Mississippi
609
Arizona
596
LOWEST
Maine
132
Massachusetts
179
Minnesota
196
Rhode Island
204
Vermont
206
Men (National = 863)
State
Rate
HIGHEST
Louisiana
1,498
Oklahoma
1,290
Mississippi
1,172
Alabama
1,159
Arkansas
1,109
LOWEST
Maine
249
Massachusetts
355
Minnesota
366
20
Vermont
391
23
Utah
393
Source: Carson, E.A. and Anderson, E. (2016). Prisoners in 2015. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
The Sentencing Project • 1705 DeSales Street NW, 8th Floor • Washington, D.C. 20036 • sentencingproject.org
4
FACT SHEET: TRENDS IN U.S. CORRECTIONS
RACIAL DISPARITIES
People in State and Federal Prisons, by Race and
Ethnicity, 2013/2014
More than 60% of the people in prison today are
people of color. Black men are nearly six times
as likely to be incarcerated as white men and
Hispanic men are 2.3 times as likely. For black
men in their thirties, 1 in every 10 is in prison or
jail on any given day.
White
33.8%
35.4%
Black
21.6%
Hispanic
Other
499,400
9.2%
523,000
319,400
135,000
Source: Carson, E.A. and Anderson, E. (2016). Prisoners in 2015.
Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Rate of Imprisonment per 100,000, by Gender, Race, and Ethnicity, 2015
White women
Black women
Latina women
White men
52
103
63
457
Black men
2,613
Latino men
1,043
Source: Carson, E.A. and Anderson, E. (2016). Prisoners in 2015. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Lifetime Likelihood of Imprisonment of U.S. Residents Born in 2001
All Men
White Men
Black Men
Latino Men
1 in 9
1 in 17
1 in 3
1 in 6
White Women
Black Women
Latina Women
1 in 111
1 in 18
1 in 45
All Women
1 in 56
Source: Bonczar, T. (2003). Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974-2001. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
The Sentencing Project • 1705 DeSales Street NW, 8th Floor • Washington, D.C. 20036 • sentencingproject.org
5
FACT SHEET: TRENDS IN U.S. CORRECTIONS
Number of Youth Committed to Juvenile Facilities,
1999-2013
YOUTH
Since 1999, commitment to secure juvenile
facilities for youth who have been adjudicated
delinquent has been steadily declining from a
high point of 77,835 in 1999 to 35,246 in 2013.
Still, troubling problems remain. Youth of
color enter the system much more frequently
than white youth and are more likely to be
sentenced to harsher terms of punishment.
In addition, thousands of young people are
transferred to the adult system each year, and
many are sent to adult prisons and jails to
serve their sentences.
77,835 76,190
68,982
64,532
60,412
48,423
41,934
35,246
1999
2001
2003
2006
2007
2010
2011
2013
Source: Sickmund, M., Sladky, T.J., Kang, W., & Puzzanchera, C. (2015).
Easy Access to the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement. Available:
http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp.
Rate of Youth in Residential Placement per 100,000, by Race and
Ethnicity, 2013
100
White
464
Black
173
Hispanic
American Indian
334
Asian
28
Source: Sickmund, M., Sladky, T.J., Kang, W., & Puzzanchera, C. (2015). Easy Access to the Census of
Juveniles in Residential Placement. Available: http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/ezacjrp.
Number of Youth Held in Jails and State Prisons, 1985-2015
15,000
12,000
9,000
2015: 4,493
6,000
Youth in
adult jails
2013
2014
2015
2011
2012
2010
2009
2007
2008
2006
2005
2004
2003
2001
2002
1999
2000
1997
1998
1995
1996
1994
1993
1992
1991
1989
1990
1987
1988
1985
1986
3,000
Youth in adult
prisons
Sources: Austin, J., Johnson, K. D., & Gregoriou, M. (2000). Juveniles in Adult Prisons and Jails: A National Assessment. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice
Assistance; Bureau of Justice Statistics Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear Series; Bureau of Justice Statistics Prisoner Series; Strom, K. J. (2000). Profile
of State Prisoners under Age 18, 1985-1997. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
The Sentencing Project • 1705 DeSales Street NW, 8th Floor • Washington, D.C. 20036 • sentencingproject.org
6
FACT SHEET: TRENDS IN U.S. CORRECTIONS
Felony Disenfranchisement Restrictions by State, 2016
FELONY
DISENFRANCHISEMENT
In 48 states, a felony conviction can
result in the loss of an individual’s voting
rights. The period of disenfranchisement
varies by state, with some states
restoring the vote upon completion of
a prison term, and others effectively
disenfranchising for life. As a result of
the dramatic expansion of the criminal
justice system in the last 40 years, felony
disenfranchisement has affected the
political voice of many communities.
Today, 6.1 million Americans are
unable to vote due to state felony
disenfranchisement policies.
No restriction
Prison
Prison & parole
Prison, parole
& probation
Prison, parole, probation
& post-sentence
Source: Chung, J. (2016). Felony Disenfranchisement: A Primer. Washington,
DC: The Sentencing Project.
Rate of Disenfranchisement, by Race, 2016
2.47%
Non-African American
7.44%
African American
Source: Uggen, C., Larson, R., & Shannon, S. (2016). 6 Million Lost Voters: State-Level
Estimates of Felon Disenfranchisement, 2016. Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project.
Disenfranchised Population by Incarceration Status, 2016
In prison or jail
On probation or parole
Completed sentence
23%
26%
51%
Source: Uggen, C., Larson, R., & Shannon, S. (2016). 6 Million Lost Voters: State-Level
Estimates of Felon Disenfranchisement, 2016. Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project.
The Sentencing Project • 1705 DeSales Street NW, 8th Floor • Washington, D.C. 20036 • sentencingproject.org
7
FACT SHEET: TRENDS IN U.S. CORRECTIONS
LIFE SENTENCES
Number of People Serving Life Sentences, 1984-2012
The number of people serving life sentences
continues to grow even while serious, violent
crime has been declining for the past 20 years and
little public safety benefit has been demonstrated
to correlate with increasingly lengthy sentences.
The lifer population has more than quadrupled
since 1984. One in nine people in prison is now
serving a life sentence and nearly a third of lifers
have been sentenced to life without parole.
159,520
142,727
127,677
Number of People Serving Life Without
Parole Sentences, 1992-2012
132,000
69,845
49,081
33,633
40,174
34,000
12,453
1992
2003
2008
2012
1984
Source: Nellis, A. (2013). Life Goes On: The Historic
Rise in Life Sentences in America. Washington, DC:
The Sentencing Project.
1992
2003
2005
2008
2012
Source: Nellis, A. (2013). Life Goes On: The Historic Rise in Life Sentences in
America. Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project.
People Serving Life Sentences, by Race and Ethnicity, 2012
White
34.7%
Black
Latino
47.2%
16%
Source: Nellis, A. (2013). Life Goes On: The Historic Rise in Life Sentences in America.
Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project.
This fact sheet was updated March 2017.
1705 DeSales Street NW, 8th Floor
Washington, D.C. 20036
The Sentencing Project works for a fair and effective U.S. justice
system by promoting reforms in sentencing policy, addressing
unjust racial disparities and practices, and advocating for
alternatives to incarceration.
sentencingproject.org
The Sentencing Project • 1705 DeSales Street NW, 8th Floor • Washington, D.C. 20036 • sentencingproject.org
8

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