Expert Answer:University of Southern California Week 2 Child Exp

  

Solved by verified expert:Thesis Proposal: TO WHAT EXTENT SOCIAL MEDIA THREATENS CHILD SEX
TRAFFICKING/EXPLOITATION ON AN INTERNATIONAL LEVEL AND PRESENTS
OPPORTUNITIES TO COMBAT ITI’ve included several attachments:Week 2: Word document of the research proposal that was submittedWeek 2 with feedback: Feedback from the professor is on the side margins (please take note of them)Professor feedback separated: Copy and past of the feedback notes from the professor (if helpful) including and beginning explanation of one question.Two attachments are from other thesis that include information I believe will be helpful on how I would like to put this thesis togetherThesis format: This is a general format idea of what I want to complete (end product). This can also be used for the start of the literature review that needs to be done with this assignment. The thesis proposal shall be 5 pages in length not including title page or references.Your title page should include the working title of your thesis, your name, and your working abstract.The abstract includes the following components: purpose of the research, methodology, findings, and conclusion. The body of the abstract is limited to 150-200 words.Your thesis proposal should have the following sections:Introduction: The introduction is where you identify your specific research question and where you set the general context for the study. In this section you need to include:a statement of the problem or general research question and context leading to a clear statement of the specific research question;background and contextual material justifying why this case or topic should be studied; anda purpose statement.Literature Review: This short preliminary literature review section reviews the literature important to your specific research question. The literature review focuses on discussing how other researchers have addressed the same or similar research questions. It introduces the study and places it in larger context that includes a discussion of why it is important to study this case. It provides the current state of accumulated knowledge as it relates to your specific research question. In this section you should:Summarize the general state of the literature (cumulative knowledge base) on the specific research question. For example if you discuss other studies that have been conducted you would summarize the researcher’s findings, how those findings were obtained, and conduct an evaluation of biases in the findings.This section should provide a broad overview of the primary arguments related to the topic and organizes the general views on the main aspects of the topic by theme, which could be the prevailing arguments or schools of thought, or commonly held beliefs that your particular topic may challenge.Include a short conclusion and transition to the next section.Theoretical Framework/Approach: The theoretical framework section develops the theories or models to be used in the study and shows how you have developed testable research hypotheses. This section should include:an introduction discussing gaps in the literature, how this study will help fill some of those gaps, and justification for the theory or model to be used in study;a summary of the theory or model to be used in the study, including a diagram of the model if appropriate; anda statement of hypotheses to be tested.For some additional information on how to organize your theoretical framework into your paper, check out this USC Library guide on Theoretical Frameworks.Research Design & Methods: Describes how you will test the hypothesis and carry out your analysis. This section describes the data to be used to test the hypothesis, how you will operationalize and collect data on your variables, and the analytic methods that to be used, noting potential biases and limitations to the research approach. It should include:identification and operationalization (measurement) of variables;a sampling plan (i.e., study population and sampling procedures, if appropriate);justification of case studies used;data collection/sources (secondary literature, archives, interviews, surveys, etc.);a summary of analysis procedures (pattern-matching, etc.); andthe limitations of study and bias discussion.Conclusion: Should re-emphasize the importance of the study and bring the proposal full circle.Reference List: References the works that you have cited (direct quotes or paraphrases) in the text. This list must be in the Turabian “Reference List” style rather than in the “Bibliography” style. Remember that the references you use demonstrate your knowledge of the topic area. This research proposal is meant to convince your professor that you not only have identified a worthy question in need of investigation, but that you are also capable of carrying out the research involved to successfully answer that question. At the very least you should have referenced 6-10 sources in this proposal.Format:Standard academic format will suffice: 1-inch borders on all four sides, double spaced, with times new roman 12-point font.
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Commented [yk1]: Are there also any influential international actors?
Commented [yk2]: Some discussions regarding international rules and norms will be helpful.
Different IR theories also present different approaches toward international rules and norms.
Commented [yk3]: So, does the project treat social media as a principal independent variable?
How about also considering which political actors use social media? And, why and how do those
political actors use social media?
I believe this would make social as a principal independent variable?
The political actors use social media to investigative crimes reported from internet service
providers made to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) through
cyber tips. They are work undercover in an online capacity (social media) posing as children or
adults pimping out children. The FBI and HSI (homeland security) both investigate crimes
nationally and internationally.
Commented [yk4]: Is the term, human rights, a theory? The term, human rights can also be a
concept, value, idea, and a source of identity.
Commented [yk5]: Which international theories provide some useful explanations about the role
of human rights in global and regional political situations?
Commented [yk6]: It will be helpful to examine some specific examples.
Commented [yk7]: It will be important and helpful to compare their respective roles.
Commented [yk8]: One is a regional example, while the other is national/domestic example?
Commented [yk9]: Are there any laws, norms, or standards at the global level? Which political
actors have authorities and capabilities to implement policies and initiatives?
Commented [yk10]: Are there any International Relations theories which may provide some
useful explanations for this case?
THE COMMERCIAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATION
OF CHILDREN
by
CYNTHIA HIPOLITO
Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of
The University of Texas at Arlington in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements
for the Degree of
MASTER OF ARTS IN CRIMINOLOGY AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE
THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON
DECEMBER 2007
UMI Number: 1447302
UMI Microform 1447302
Copyright 2008 by ProQuest Information and Learning Company.
All rights reserved. This microform edition is protected against
unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code.
ProQuest Information and Learning Company
300 North Zeeb Road
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Now, that my project is finally complete I want to take the time to thank, with
my most sincere gratitude, Dr. Bing. Thank you, Dr. Bing, for your support, dedication,
patience, and guidance in this journey. I appreciate your devotion and commitment in
this research. Thank you for believing in me. I am deeply grateful.
I want to thank Dr. Del Carmen and Dr. Eve for serving on my committee.
Their knowledge and assistance has contributed to my graduate education. They are
excellent instructors making a difference at UTA, everyday.
I want to dearly thank my parents, Olga & Jose Hipolito, for their continued
support and faith in me. You are my two pillars in life. I am what I am now because of
you guys. I love you. I want to thank my sister for constantly bugging me on the phone,
just to find out how I was doing and for you constant trips to keep me company, I
appreciate it. I love you. Grandma thank you for your blessings and wishes, you are
one of the most important people in my life. I love you.
I want to thank my fiancé for his love, support and understanding; I want to
thank the rest of my family and all those closest to me because without their love and
support I would not have made it so far away from home.
November 21, 2007
ii
ABSTRACT
THE COMMERCIAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATION
OF CHILDREN
Publication No. ______
Cynthia Hipolito, M.A.
The University of Texas at Arlington, 2007
Supervising Professor: Robert L. Bing III
The purpose of the study is to review the thematic content analysis of the
empirical literature on the commercial sexual exploitation of children. The research
explores recurring themes and/ or trends in the literature by inductive content analysis.
The research involves the examination of the research, that is, published books, book
chapters, magazine articles, newspaper articles, and refereed journal articles on the topic
of commercialized sexual exploitation of children. This very basic form of content
analysis will seek to amplify issues on the topic in an organized fashion, by exploring
the
themes
to
emerge
inductively
and
iii
make
policy
recommendations.
This research concludes with specific recommendations; there is a need for global
knowledge, as well as to understand the cultural, social, and economic contexts this
issue may arise.
iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………………………………
ii
ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………………………………..
iii
Chapter
1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………….
1
1.1 Scope of Study…………………………………………………………………………..
5
1.2 The Plan of Presentation………………………………………………………………..
5
2. LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………………..
7
2.1 A Brief History of Sexually Abused Children…………………………………..
7
2.2 Child Prostitution….…………………………………………………………………….
11
2.3 Child Pornography………………………………………………………
17
2.4 Child Sex Tourism…….…………………………………………………
24
2.5 Child Trafficking………………………………………………………..
28
2.6 Summary……………………………………………………………………
32
3. METHODOLOGY……….. ………………………………………………………………..
34
3.1 Typologies……………… ……………………………………………………………..
34
3.2 The Sample……………………………………………………………..
35
3.2.1 Developing the Sample…………………………………………………….
35
v
3.3 Master List………………………………………………………………
36
3.3.1 Developing the Master List……………………………………………….
37
3.3.2 First Phase (Method)………………………………………………………..
37
3.3.3 Second Phase (Method)……………………………………………………
37
3.3.4 Third Phase (Method)…………………………………………
38
3.4 Analysis Procedure……………………………………………………..
38
3.4.1 What Gets Counted: Units of Analysis……………………….
39
3.4.2 Analytical Induction………………………………………………………..
40
3.5 Disclaimer…………………………………………………………………………
40
4. EMERGENT THEMES……………………………………………………………
41
4.1 Poverty………………………………………………………………………….
41
4.1.1 Globalization……………………………………………………..
45
4.1.2 Unemployment…………………………………………………
47
4.1.3 Lack of Education………………………………………………
48
4.2 Family Dysfunction………………………………………………………
49
4.2.1 Prior Child Sexual Abuse………………………………………
50
4.2.2 Drug Abuse………………………………………………………
52
4.3 Technology………………………………………………………………..
53
4.3.1 Computer………………………………………………………..
54
4.3.2 Digital Cameras…………………………………………………..
55
4.3.3 Internet…………………………………………………………..
56
vi
4.4 Culture ……………………………………………………………………. 57
4.4.1 Discrimination…………………………………………………. 58
4.4.2 Traditions ……………………………………………………… 59
4.4.3 Education ……………………………………………………… 61
4.4.4 Morality ……………………………………………………….. 61
4.5 Legislation of Laws……………………………………………………… 62
5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION……………………………………….. 66
5.1 Policy Issues and Recommendations…………………………………….. 71
5.1.1 Concluding Remarks…………………………………………… 77
Appendix
A. FINAL MASTER LIST ……………………………………………………………………
78
BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………………………………………
85
BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION………………………………………………………………. 100
vii
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
“A central characteristic of any abuse is the dominant position of an adult that allows him
or her to force or coerce a child into sexual activity. Child sexual abuse may include
fondling a child’s genitals, masturbation, oral-genital contact, digital penetration, vaginal
and anal intercourse. Child sexual abuse is not solely restricted to physical contact; such
abuse could include non- contact abuse, such as exposure, voyeurism, and child
pornography. Abuse by peers also occurs.”
(American Psychological Association, 2001, p.1)
The sexual exploitation of children worldwide is a global growth industry. In the
United States alone, it is estimated that at least 300,000 children are involved in
prostitution each year (Estes, 2001). Worldwide, at least 1 million children are forced
into prostitution.
Child sexual exploitation or child sexual abuse exists throughout the world, in
nearly all countries. The problem extends from underdeveloped countries to modern
industrial countries. Generally speaking, girls are primary targets of sexual abuse, but
boys can be targeted as well. Many studies, (see ECPAT, 2006) have found that children
as young as six or seven years of age are sexually exploited. The consequences for
abused and exploited children include profound, physical, developmental, emotional, and
social problems.
It is believed that the commercial sexual exploitation of children throughout the
world is on the increase. In Europe, for example, there is frequent trafficking of children
1
from Central and Eastern Europe to Western Europe for commercial sexual purposes. It
has increased because it is easier and cheaper for traffickers to recruit them. In Africa,
where trafficking is widespread, an estimated 41% of children between ages of 5 to 14
are sexually exploited. In Asia, since the 1980’s, the exploitation of children has been
documented. In the Americas and Caribbean, children are primarily forced to work in
commercial sex in tourist resorts in Mexico. In a report from the National Center for
Missing and Exploited Children (2002), the U.S. Department of States Report July 2001,
reveals that children from Central America, China and Eastern Europe are trafficked
through Mexico for commercial sex work in the United States. These children are
subjected to a range of abuses which include child pornography, child prostitution, child
sex tourism, and trafficking of children for sexual purposes (Grant, David, Grabosky,
2001).
There are a number of factors that contribute to the commercial sexual
exploitation of children. One contributing factor to the increased incidence of sexual
exploitation of children is technology. Technology makes it easier for child abusers to
exploit children; the internet has become an easy device to use in the exploitation of
children. Today, producing child images on the internet for sexual purposes is very easy
and inexpensive. According to the National Center for Exploited and Missing Children
(2007), the technological ease, lack of expense, and anonymity in obtaining and
distributing child pornography has resulted in the availability, accessibility, and volume
of child pornography. The internet, for example, allows images and videos to be
reproduced and made available to anyone with the click of a button. Images of children
are exploited and monetary benefits are profiting from this type of child sexual abuse.
2
Child prostitution is another aspect of the sex trade between kids. Both girls
and boys are prostituted everyday. As noted by Willis & Levy (2002), child prostitution
involves offering the sexual services of a child or inducing a child to perform sexual
acts for any form of compensation, financial, or otherwise. These children are
prostituted in brothels, streets, bars, hotels and are frequently moved to help avoid
detection. The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (2007) estimates
that over 50,000 women and children are trafficked into the U.S. for sexual exploitation.
Many of these kids come from very poor countries and respond to ads on newspaper
about job placement; however, what these kids don’t know is that they are being tricked
and are wanted for commercial sexual purposes.
Another aspect of child sexual abuse is child sex tourism. Child sex
tourism is a growing industry in the world. Tourist cities provide easy access to
children for sexual purposes. As tourists travel to distant lands to learn about the
culture, food, customs, etc., they may also seek sexual access to children. Tourism
offers the opportunity to make economic growth, even if it means exploiting children.
The United States Department of Justice (2007) has reported that younger children
(many below the age of 10) have been increasingly drawn into serving tourists. The
commercial sexual exploitation of children is morally reprehensible and violates
children’s rights and liberties. Each year, millions of children are loss as a result.
In addition, the trafficking of children for sexual purposes involves organized
crime groups. Trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or
receipt of persons, for sexual exploitation (Ives, 2001, p.6). This type of child abuse
3
involves children taken by force from their countries to serve as sex slaves. This
problem can be national or transnational. Children are moved across borders to be
sexually exploited. The child is forced to sexually engage with an adult. In addition,
what is even more problematic is the commercialized sexual exploitation of children.
Individuals are making a monetary profit out of children who are sexually abused while
these children are being humiliated, marginalized, exploited, and even killed. The
commercial sexual exploitation of children is a seven billion dollar global business.
This is the third most profitable illegal enterprise after the illegal trade and sale of guns
and drugs. The commercial sexual exploitation of children involves coercion and
violence, forced labor and is a contemporary form of slavery (ECPAT, 2006). The
child is treated as a commercial and sexual object. Children involved in this
phenomenon are constantly violated and denigrated. Those at risk of sexual
exploitation are “most often vulnerable children from poor countries, children living in
war zones, single mothers, young women, and especially children that are orphans and
homeless” (ECPAT, 2007). Almost all of these children are kidnapped and coerced into
child prostitution. Victims are trafficked from developing countries such as Asia,
Central America, Africa, and Russia to developed countries such as the United States
and Europe. In the United States, more than 45,000 children are forced to engage in
prostitution.
In all, the global phenomenon of commercial sexual exploitation of children is a
growing industry that harms children and violates their rights. Monetary profit is made
out of innocent bodies. The magnitude of the problem is reflected in the number of
4
children, over a million, who are lost each year. There are contributing factors that
must be understood and studied in order to resolve this problem. This global
phenomenon is killing many children. There is a need to expand even further global
knowledge; a need to identify themes and patterns of practice and also a need to
understand the cultural, social, and economic contexts of sexual exploitation.
1.1 Scope of Study
The purpose of the study is to offer a thematic content analysis of the empirical
literature on the commercial sexual exploitation of children. This research, then,
involves an examination of the literature on the subjects, published in books, book
chapters, magazine articles, newspaper articles, and refereed journal articles on the topic
of commercial sexual exploitation of children. Another goal of the project is to make
sense of the literature by methodological approach and theoretical orientation. Doing so
will require a content analysis to aid in identification of apparent themes and trends in
the empirical literature.
1.2 The Plan of Presentation
Chapter 1 introduces the topic while presenting the scope of the problem on the
commercial sexual exploitation of children. Likewise, it provides an overview of the
important points and trends from the literature review as to the approach that will be
used.
5
Chapter 2 offers a review of the literature review and a historical background.
Chapter 3 focuses on the methodology approach. It describes the methods used to
conceptualize and organize themes or trends in the literature.
Chapter 4 presents the themes gathered from the literature. Meanwhile chapter
5 presents the findings. This chapter also discusses the findings and policy
recommendations and ends with some concluding remarks.
6
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 A Brief History of Sexually Abused Children
Each year, more than 1 million children are forced into child prostitution, child
pornography, abused in tourist areas and trafficked and sold for sexual purposes (Barnitz,
2001). According to the 2nd World Congress Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of
Children in 2001, children by being coerced or lured into the multi- billion world sex
market agency are denied their rights, dignity, and their childhood. The literature reveals
that the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) exposes them to one of the
most heinous forms of child labor, endangering their mental and physical wellbeing.
CSEC is a form of forced labor and a contemporary form of slavery. Indeed, CSEC as
noted by the 2nd World Congress against commercial sexual exploitation of children,
results in serious lifelong threatening consequences, impacting the physical,
psychological, spiritual, moral, and social development of children. Other marks
associated with CSEC include the threat of early pregnancy, maternal mortality, injury,
retarded development, physical disabilities, and sexually transmitted diseases including
HIV/AIDS.
DeMause and Joseph (1998), suggest that while sexual abuse has been prevalent
throughout history, it has only recently emerged as a matter requiring the public’s
attention. Child sexual abuse has existed since the Archaic Period in Ancient Greece.
During the time period, there were erotic practices between adult and adolescent male.
7
The sexual exploitation of children was seen as a form of sexual expression. This
ancient practice as idealized by the Greeks, involved a relationship (sexual or chaste)
with an adolescent boy and an adult man outside of his immediate family …
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